Online Journal of Anthropology

Volume 18, Number 1, 2022

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 “Lenin was a mushroom”. Russian Post-Soviet History of Fly-Agaric


The fly-agaric, with its characteristic red hat sprinkled with white spots, is the best known mushroom of Eurasian iconography, depicted countless times in children’s fairy tales and Christmas themes. Endowed with intoxicating properties and used for millennia in Siberia as a visionary shamanic source, for several centuries Western culture has also attributed deadly properties to it. The cultural genesis of this “mortalization” process brought to the opposing values of “poisonous / intoxicating” and “negative / positive”; a semantic ambivalence that has also been present in Russian culture since pre-Soviet times. The mukhomor — the Russian name for fly-agaric— was employed in the final years of Soviet power as a symbol of redemption by dissident underground movements, and its significant presence in contemporary Russian intellectual, literary and artistic production is presented on the basis of historical and ethnomycological considerations.

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A Serpent’s Tale: the Milky Way


Before light pollution robbed us of its celestial glow, the Milky Way was the backbone of the night and became part of ancient people’s myths and beliefs based on their perception of it as a serpent. In North America, whether as a giant form on the ground or pictured on a rock, the snake has a story to tell of the road for souls, one which goes back well over 4000 years and can be found in caves, on hilltops or as a pathway for the living to traverse, all reflections of the serpent stretching overhead.

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Quale dio preistorico stiamo piangendo e ci aspettiamo che risorga in questi giorni?


A few reflections on Easter.
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Resurfacing Celtic Traditions. Muttiron, Mutera, Motta, Linguistic Legacies and Oral Traditions


I found that the surname Muttiron is widespread in ancient Insubrian Celtic-speaking areas, such as the provinces of Varese, Sondrio, and Como, while surnames made to derive from ‘motta’ in the sense of ‘mound’ are widespread mainly in Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria, an area of Trentino-Veneto (Valsugana), and Emilia-Romagna. There are also nuclei in the South. I started from the hypothesis that there was a considerable possibility that the original word belonged to a continental Celtic language, in our case Cenomanian, Insubre or Lepontian or other Cisalpine Celtic languages, and that there might be a correspondence with some language of the so-called Celtic Fringe. Starting with variants of ‘motte,’ such as ‘mutera, motera, motaron, muttiron,’ I saw that there was a remarkable similarity to a Scottish and Irish Gaelic term, mothar, which covers a remarkable range of meanings, from marshy area to Celtic fortress ruin on a hill, from terrifying howl to a dark, misty mass, to a group of trees and tangle of bushes. Where linguistics did not reach, we were helped by folk tradition, which showed us how the structural elements of stories about the motte in Veneto fall within the semantic fields examined by Gaelic and Indo-European linguistics: these stories link the motte to the otherworld, to mystery, to ancient heroes and their banquets, to Dionysian cries and the Sabbath, to the sounds of ancient battles and long dead soldiers buried there, to supernatural creatures dressed in red and to those that inhabit streams, springs, swamps, and forests.
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Maternal Knowledge and Practices During and Post Pregnancy Period and It’s Relationship with the Nutritional Health of a Peri-Urban Children Population of North 24 Parganas of West Bengal, India


One of the important aspects of today’s research in the area of public health is the nutritional health of children populations which has been suffering from decades and now became a burning issue in public health. Scholars worldwide appointed themselves to understand the role of multiple factors working behind it such as demographic imbalance, socio-economic factors, food impurity, parental unconsciousness etc. Likewise, the present study is a small attempt to understand the nutritional health of the children of a particular population, residing in a peri-urban region of North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India, in light of maternal knowledge and practices regarding child’s health and nutrition. A total of 96 under-five children have been accounted for in this study through random sampling from the ICDS centers of Madhyamgram town. Data on children’s HAZ, BAZ, birth weight and maternal knowledge and practices has been collected through anthropometric measurements of children and interviews of mothers. Study reveals that according to HAZ they are in a satisfying condition as their prevalence percentage in low HAZ shows 3.12% but in case of low BAZ, the prevalence percentage shows unsatisfactory result (36.46%) as found in case of low-birth-weight (39.58%). The study also found insignificant association between children’s socio-economic background and their nutritional failure but found some disparity among maternal knowledge and its practices. The study concludes that the studied children population is in unsatisfying nutritional condition only in terms of their BAZ which might be the result of inconsistency in the knowledge and it’s practices of mothers..

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A Study on the Distribution of Health Complications among the Endosulfan Pesticide Affected Victims of Karnataka


The world has faced numerous severe harmful and deadly disasters for several decades. These are hazardous and destructive chemical substances that resulted in severe complications and damage to humans, animals, and the environment. Before the ban on it by the Supreme Court of India, Endosulfan was extensively used as a major pesticide in the agricultural and allied sectors as an insecticide to control the harmful insects and mites in agricultural fields. Endosulfan has been extensively sprayed in the government-owned cashew plantations of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, and Karwar districts by Karnataka Cashew Development Corporation Ltd., Karnataka for almost two decades. In April 2011 the Stockholm Convention recommended the global ban on the manufacture and use of Endosulfan. WHO categorizes Endosulfan as a moderately hazardous chemical substance and it was banned due to adverse impacts and complications triggered on the health of humans, animals, and the environment. All over the world, several studies have established a connection between aerial spraying of Endosulfan pesticides and the growing health complications and disorders in human populations from toxic exposure. The present study aims to know the nature and prevalence of disabilities and health complications among the Endosulfan affected victims in the selected villages of Karnataka state, India.

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Livelihood Challenges And Responses To COVID-19 Pandemic: A Photovoice Study In An Oraon Tribal Village In Jharkhand


The paper is based on the research conducted in an Oraon tribe village of the Palamu district of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Through ‘Photovoice’ Research, the study focuses on expressing their livelihood challenges and responses during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in 2020. The paper argues that ‘photovoice’ is an effective participatory method that offers us meaningful visual techniques to identify, represent, and encourage people to participate and take actions for social change by giving them collectives voices in the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. Also, it invites a critical dialogue for effective policy and planning.

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Ageing Among The Tiwas: A Study of Their Socio-Economic Condition


Ageing is a natural process which affects every individual and society as well. Old age is characterised by economic insecurity, ill health, loneliness and physical and mental powers. The present study is an attempt to study the socio-economic condition of the ageing Tiwa population living in Morigaon district of Assam. The sample of the study consists of 248 males and 247 females in the age group of 50 years and above. The study looks into the age - sex composition of the ageing Tiwas, their educational, occupational and marital status, their living arrangement and attempts to assess their economic condition from their family income. The ageing Tiwas are educationally and economically backward. Their main occupation is agriculture and they continue to work as long as it is possible for them. Women are predominantly housewives. A look into their marital status, reveal that more women (43.32%) than men (20.56%) no longer have a surviving spouse. Joint family is the most prevalent type of family and only a very small proportion of elderly couples (4.24%) live without any other adult family members.

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Change in Bodyweight during 2nd lockdown of COVID-19 Pandemic: A cross-sectional study among overweight and obese respondents of central India


India has faced two waves of the pandemic of COVID-19. To control the transmission of the virus lockdowns were imposed which changed the life style of people. The level of physical activity was declined and resulted into weight gain. To prove this hypothesis, the present study was conducted with the objective to know the extent and determinants of body weight change among the overweight and obese respondents. The data was collected from district Sagar of Madhya Pradesh state of India. A total of 120 respondents of age group 20-60 years who were overweight and obese were measured before and after the 2nd wave of pandemic. It was found that loss of bodyweight is higher (60.3%) among overweight respondents as compared to obese i.e. (39.7%); whereas the prevalence of weight gain was higher among obese respondents (58.1%) as compared to overweight (43.5%). Similarly, the weight gain was found higher among the females, housewives, sedentary workers and middle age (41-60 years) respondents. During the 2nd wave of lockdown the body weight change among overweight and obese respondents was witnessed in equal proportion; as ~50% were lost their body weight whereas similar proportion has gained body weight. Education, occupation and income do not have any association with the change of body weight; whereas the association of weight gain was seen among the females, obese as well as sedentary workers.

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Digital Financial Capability of Cashew Workers as Part of Financial Inclusion Evidence from Kerala


The essay makes a judgment on the digital financial capabilities of cashew workers who are paid on a per-product basis. Digital financial services gained from financial inclusion. The capacity to conduct digital financial transactions is important for the growth of emerging economies. The digital economy is rapidly becoming the world’s most significant driver of innovation, competitiveness, and growth. Despite the fact that many people have been excluded, the digital economy offers immense long-term potential to promote financial inclusion and economic progress. The CGAP defines digital financial inclusion as “the excluded and underserved population’s digital access to and usage of formal financial services.” In this paper, I’m attempting to examine the impact of financial inclusion on the financial competence of cashew workers in Kerala. The post provides important guidance for financial digital platform providers.

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Prevalence of Anaemia in India: A comparative evidence-based study from National Family Health Survey-3 and -4


Data based on family health and nutrition in India are reported by the national surveys of the country. The National Family Health Survey 3 (NFHS-3) and 4 (NFHS-4) released the report of 2005-06 and 2015-16. The NFHS-5 also released the data set for 22 states and union territories for the year 2019-20 very recently. Anaemia is among the major public health challenges which affect the vulnerable segments of the population which includes children and women. The men are also affected by the deficiency of anaemia but to a lesser extent. The present paper compares the NFHS-3 and NFHS-4 reports for the prevalence of anaemia among children belonging to 6-59 months and adults across 29 states. The study also discussed various factors, causes and consequences which serve as an important determinant for the occurrence of anaemia. The interventions by the government in relation to anaemia were also analyzed.

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Contextualizing Gender Dynamics: A Study of Muslim Women in Rural Haryana


This paper discusses how gender dynamics shape different facets of everyday life of Muslim women of rural Haryana such as education, aspirations, work, mobility and conformity to gendered norms. It argues that socio-economic conditions forged with culturally experienced gender norms shape the unique identity of these women. Based on qualitative study with in-depth interviews of different castes in Haryana, it explores various gendered roles performed by women. It aims to understand the dynamics of gender experienced by these women in their everyday life. It offers insight into the lives of the women with regard to their regional and religious identity which shapes their everyday being in view of gender stereotypes, stated son preference, family honour and dowry. It brings out that bodies are an integral part of the being and existence of a woman to perform their gendered roles and behaviour, defining her experiences.

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Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Singphos and Wanchos, the Less Known Tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, India


Tribals in India in general live in an area that is characterized by rich natural resources like forest, land, water, biodiversity, and minerals. It would not be an exaggeration to state that poverty, misery, and deprivation continue to persist among tribals of India. This study presents the socio-economic profile of the Singpho and Wancho tribal populations of North Eastern India, which is less studied. Socio-economic characteristics of households, wealth, education and occupation have long been known to be major determinants of educational enrolment and achievement in both developing and developed countries. In the last decade, India had made remarkable progress in getting children into school. Education empowers people and improves their ability to communicate, argue, and choose in informed ways. When literacy is calculated by excluding the population below 6 years of age it is observed that 84.2% of the Singphos and 44.9% of the Wanchos are literate. The Singpho and Wancho tribe of Arunachal Pradesh are one of the major scheduled tribes with distinct socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Singphos are mainly distributed in the Changlang and Lohit districts and Wanchos are mainly distributed in the Longding District of Arunachal Pradesh. The average annual income of both the communities is very low. The percentage of female workers is higher in both the communities. It is found that the literacy rate is much higher among the Singphos than among the Wanchos. The percentage of the working population is higher among the Singphos than among the Wanchos.

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Effect Of Menopause On Aging, Mental And Reproductive Health Among Women: A Review


Menopause is both a biological and a neuro-endrocrine transition in a woman’s life. This shift in hormonal levels has an impact on women’s physical and mental health. Menopausal women have a higher rate of morbidity and life dissatisfaction, such as mental and neurological disorders. It’s difficult to tell the difference between the effects of aging, estrogen deficiency, and social and environmental stress on women’s health. Cognitive disorders, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, type II diabetes, and lifestyle diseases are all major health complications and comorbidities that menopausal women face. Dysphoric disorders, mood disturbances, cognitive complaints, insomnia, and other mental illnesses are common among them. Menopause has an impact on women’s reproductive lives, and menopausal women are more likely to develop cancer. In adult women, menopause is one of the risk factors for such cancers. Good nutrition, adequate sleep, physical activity, mental health, and a stress-free lifestyle can all aid women in overcoming this stage. The current review study’s objectives are to gain a better understanding of menopause and its relationship to ageing, as well as the impact of menopause on women’s psychological and reproductive health.

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Health Problems of Hanji Community: A Study of District Bandipora of Jammu and Kashmir


In resource-dependent communities such as the Hanji/fishermen community, human health supports the ability of individuals and families to maintain sustainable livelihoods. The Hanji/Fishermen community is involved in dangerous and complex profession and it faces numerous and unknown challenges such as it works overtime at the lake- nightshifts and late- night return from the lake which exacerbate its health conditions. A study was conducted in view to explore the health status of the Hanji community in the Bandipora district. One Hundred (100) respondents were randomly selected from five villages of hanji community in district Bandipora through simple random sampling. The data were collected during November 2020 to March 2021 and twenty respondents were selected from each of the five villages. Structured interview schedules were adopted to collect information on health issues faced by the respondents. The findings of the study indicated that out of 100 respondents, 32 suffered from skin infection, 19 respondents were affected by knee pain, 15 respondents suffered from eye disorder, 5 respondents suffered from headache, 7 respondents suffered from viral fever, 12 respondents reported that they suffered from back pain. Around 10 respondents also reported other health problems such as finger nail cavity, blistering and stomach problems faced by the Hanjis while engaged in the various fishing practices in district Bandipora. The study concluded that the Hanjis in district Bandipora are prone to various occupational health problems and strategies need to be developed to limit the problem and to promote their health status.

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Social Mobility via Occupational Perception: An Anthropological Study of the Fisherfolks of Kashmir Valley


Kashmir is home to a significant community of fisherfolks who dwell along the banks of lakes and rivers. This population is responsible for the artisanal/traditional fisheries in the Kashmir valley, which provide most of the fish consumed by the indigenous people. This community of artisanal fishers is the most marginalized and usually lives on the periphery of the economic, social, and political life. This article examines the process of social mobility that occurs because of vocational shifts. This study’s disparity to occupational mobility as the multidimensional processes with the ‘skill of knowledge’ functional theory postulates that mobility is uni-dimensional where skill does not affect the occupation, but ‘income is the only factor to affect movement between occupations. A tendency of social mobility has been noticed with the specific goal of enhancing the social status and economic standing of the fishing community along Asia’s famed Wular Lake’s shores. These indigenous people are presently diversifying their livelihoods away from fishing to achieve a more sophisticated standing in society, leaving this group vulnerable. Those that continue to fish traditionally face a backward existence, including a declining economic condition. Both upward and downward social mobility have been recorded in current times, putting this traditional fishing community at risk of extinction.

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The Origins of Collegiate Education in Kerala and the Dynamics of Community Power Balance


This paper examines the origin of collegiate education in Kerala, India. More specifically, it looks at local conditions that aided the development of collegiate education. The term “Kerala” refers to the south Indian region that includes the modern state as well as historical entities such as the Kingdom of Travancore, the Kingdom of Cochin, Zamorin’s Calicut, and the Madras Presidency, among others. The European concept and practise of higher education based on the Renaissance and Enlightenment are used to discuss what is now known as “college.” Postcolonial education in this region is traced to European ideals brought to the east by merchants, missionaries, and colonisers during their expeditions and endeavours. Political, religious, and social change have also been considered in this study.

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Social Support and Social Stigma as Predictors of Coping Behaviour among Parents of Children with Special Needs


The present study aimed at finding the predictors of coping behaviour among parents of children with special needs. Five hundred and ninety-seven (597) parents of children with special needs were chosen as participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The participants for the study were randomly selected from different BUDS schools and Special schools belonging to different parts of Kerala, India. Parents of children having Intellectual Disability, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Cerebral Palsy were selected. The instruments used for the study were the Social support Scale, Social stigma Scale, and Coping behaviour Scale. The collected data were analysed using Stepwise regression Analysis. The study concluded that Social stigma and Social support were the predictors of coping behaviour among parents of children with special needs. The findings will be of great utility to parents, researchers, counsellors and other professionals working in this area.

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Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure among Below Five Children of Korba Block, Chhattisgarh, India


India ranked 101 among 116 countries in Global Hunger Index (GHI) and India is one among the nations where hunger is notified as ‘serious’. Malnutrition is a major social or public issue in developing countries like India also known as “silent emergency”. So, the present study aims to assess the nutritional status by composite index of anthropometric failure among below five children of Korba block, Chhattisgarh, India and compare with other indices i.e. weight-for-age (underweight), height-for-age (stunting), and weight-for-height (wasting). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 (90 male and 92 female) below five children in anganwadi centres of four villages purposively. Prior consent was taken from parents and anganwadi worker before commencing anthropometric measurement. The prevalence of stunting (40.1%) was found higher among these children than underweight (24.2%) and wasting (11%). Comparatively the composite index of anthropometric failure assessed more children as undernourished (51.6%) than other indices. Male were more affected than female children. CIAF showed critical nutritional situation among studied children. The population required special attention for better care and nutritional health assessment.

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Ethnographic Profile of the Bujuur Tribe: Notes on History, Society and Culture


The article is an ethnographic account of the Bujuur tribe on their history, society and culture. The Bujuur, also known as Moyon Naga, is a small and little known tribe belonging to the Sino-Tibetan speaking group of people inhabiting the districts of Chandel and Tengnoupal in Manipur of India and Sagaing Division of Myanmar. The Bujuur is rich in oral traditions and cultural heritage, but this social knowledge is not yet extensively researched on one hand and they are being forgotten sooner on the other hand. The objective of the article is to present a comprehensive detailed account of the history, society and culture of the Bujuur tribe within the spectra of Bujuur identity and cultural ecology. The article discusses the various parameters of the elements that define the Bujuur, which are collected via exhaustive field work spanning a decade. The article is aimed at the younger generations, especially the research communities, by opening an introductory window to the Bujuur tribe and for the Buuuur community at large to reflect on its oral traditions and associated knowledge in order to comprehend on its past, present and future.

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Societal Response To Covid: A Longitudinal Exploration Via Gas Model Of Stress


This paper explores the general stress response patterns of the masses to the covid pandemic induced situations across three different time periods, in relation to the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) model proposed by Hans Selye. The time periods considered where - when the pandemic hit, when people maintained social distancing and when covid, persisted beyond all attempts of resistance. Time periods were decided in adherence to the GAS model and explain general human reaction to stressors in three distinctive steps - an initial alarm phase that is followed by a stage of resistance, which would exhaust the organism in case of persistent exposure. Covid pandemic assumes much importance in terms of persistent exposure and the GAS Model based interpretation provides a better understanding. News reports with outstanding behavioural phenomena in relation to the pandemic was picked out, and interpreted on the basis of General Adaptation Model. The Alarm Reaction stage showed how unsure people respond, resort to trust those in power and adhere to their guidelines. The second stage - resistance – showed people depleting their savings while combating and then the third stage, when as the model suggests people became reluctant and gave up on precautions which was an expectation of the Exhaustion (third) stage. The laxation on safety regulations once considered prime pillars of covid defence has rebuffed the rate of infection and resulted in the loss of many other lives, yet again..

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Finding the importance of Rewards and Recognition among employees of 6 MNC’s located in Kolkata and how it affects their Turnover Intentions


In today’s globalizing era, amidst the competitive job market where employees of an organization are free to leave the job whenever they feel the need to, it is imperative for the organizations to employ new techniques to retain the employees in their companies. Among these measures to retain the employees; a healthy rewards and recognition system is one of the utterly important ones, because it signifies valuing the employees, which shows the company’s goodwill towards them. This study conducted among employees of 6 selected MNCs tried to identify the relation of rewarding systems with employee turnover intentions employing both necessary qualitative and quantitative methods. The results indicated that an employee friendly rewarding scheme, specifically the non-financial kind has direct relations with employee’s intentions to turnover. Better the rewards, lesser the chance of the employees leaving their job.

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Prevalence of undernutrition among the Bodo boys (3-9 years) of Kokrajhar District, Assam, North-East India


Child undernutrition (stunting and wasting) has been a serious global public health problem for the past many decades, especially in developing countries. The present study was carried out among 245 Bodo boys of 3-9 years residing under the Kachugaon Block of Gossaigaon Sub-division of Kokrajhar District, Assam in order to assess the prevalence of undernutrition among the Bodo boys. In each selected village an attempt was made to include in the sample all those children who were willing to cooperate in order to get enough sample size. Structured schedules were used to collect information about socio-economic and demographic parameters. Anthropometric measurements were obtained according to the standard techniques. Socio-economic status was classified based on modified Kuppuswamy’s classification. The age-sex specific L, M, and S reference values were used to calculate height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight for height Z scores. The boys with Z-scores -2 to -3 were classified as stunting, underweight and wasting. Similarly, the boys with Z-scores less than -3 were classified from severely stunted, severely underweight, and severely wasted. In North-East India, particularly among the Bodo community, limited studies were done on the prevalence of undernutrition. Results of the present study revealed to have 68.58% healthy and 31.42% undernourished respondents. The prevalence of undernutrition was found to be 10.20% stunting, 8.57% underweight, and 8.16% wasting. The study also found that 2.04%, 0.82%, and 1.63% were severely stunted, severely underweight, and severely wasted, respectively.

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Assessment of Nutritional Status using CIAF Among 2 to 5 Years Preschoolers of Raigarh, Chhattisgarh


Undernutrition is still one of the alarming problems of preschool children, particularly in developing countries that enhance the chances of morbidity and mortality in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 children (50 boys and 50 girls) and data were collected through house-to-house visits during day time using prepared structured schedule. Data were collected after obtaining consent from the parents of children prior to commencement of data collection. The statistically significant value was considered at P < 0.05. The result shows significant mean differences between different ages for height (F = 21.903; p < 0.000) and weight (F = 9.267; p < 0.001). A total of (58.0%) of the boys and (78.0%) of the girls are suffering from, stunting, underweight or wasting. An overall 68.0% of studied children are suffering from undernutrition. An overall (42.0%) boy and (42.0%) girls are affected with CIAF (category B-Y). There was no significant age difference (χ2 = 2.9; df =5) between no failure (A) and CIAF (B-Y). Present study children are in serious to critical (42.0%) condition with respect to one or more nutritional status indices. Thus, we can say that CIAF gives a better estimate of nutritional status as compared to the conventional indices; it can identify more children with multiple anthropometric failures; and reflects a wider view of the degree and outline of undernutrition among underprivileged areas.

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Baseline Characteristics of Menstruation among Adolescent Girls of Delhi


Adolescence witnesses the beginning of menstruation. Present work is a cross-sectional study designed to take into consideration the menstrual-health status of school going adolescent girls. 295 adolescent girls aged 10-18 years, who volunteered for the study (as permitted by their parents), were interviewed about their perception and pattern of menstruation. Menarchal age ranged from 10-15 years, 12.2 ± 0.96 years being the mean menarchal age. Dysmenorrhea and menstrual irregularity were the most prevalent problems among adolescent females. Very few girls sought healthcare facilities and avenues when they experience menstrual health problems. Lack of physical and emotional support was common.

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The Correlation Between Fall In Profit and the Deployment of AI Labour: A Marxian Analysis


Recent research shows that Artificially Intelligent Agents (AIAs) will increase the profitability of a company. Moreover, one research also claims that AIAs have the potential to increase economic growth rates by a weighted average of 1.7% across all industries through 2035. No doubt industries have benefited from the innovation of Artificial Intelligence (AI). On the contrary, there is also a body of research that contradicts these claims. Such research shows that with the advent of smart technology, profitability is decreasing. In the article ‘Artificial Intelligence and the Modern Productivity Paradox: A Clash of Expectations and Statistics’, Erik Brynjolfsson et al. (2017) argue that the discussion around the recent patterns in aggregate productivity growth highlights an apparent contradiction. Other research also echoes this concern. We find that economic growth in most developed countries, including the United States, is slowing down. Google, too, warns that the rise of AI may backfire on the company. So, the question is, why is the rate of profit of some companies decreasing? In this article, we attempt to find an explanation for this following Marx’s analysis of the ‘tendency of the rate of profit to fall’. We have shown that if Artificially Intelligent Agents as labourers replace human labourers, then there is a chance that the rate of profit may fall. We have illustrated this using an equation originally conceived by Marx. We conclude by showing that the apparent increase in the growth rate is either an illusion or is due to the successful deployment of the labour-capital hybrid model.

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Cognitive Measure as a Key Indicator for Learning Disorder


Learning disorder as defined by the DSM-V of the American Psychiatric Association is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by gross difficulty in the area of academic performance. Being a neurodevelopmental disorder, cognition and associated cognitive functions play a pivotal role in the understanding and diagnosis of learning disorders. The aim of the present study was to deep-dive into the cognitive profile of children with learning disorders to explore the role of cognitive functions contributing to the deficiencies expressed among the children with a learning disorder. Seventy-seven children diagnosed with Specific Learning Disorder were evaluated using the WISC-IV test, to analyse their cognitive profile in reference to 57 non-learning disorder children. A significant difference is found between the two groups, with the evidential indication that the cognitive profile is significantly affected among the children with learning disorders. The study also indicates that the cognitive profile derived from the WISC-IV test is a good indicator in diagnosing learning disorders, and is a good pointer for identifying the specific cognitive function that is affected. The diagnosis of learning disorder stands incomplete if the assessment of cognitive functions is compromised. The WISC –IV helps in targeting specific interventions based on the deficits. The pinpointed cognitive area can be targeted to mitigate the difficulty associated with learning, leading to a good treatment prognosis.
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Conservation of Biodiversity Using Ethnic Adaptive Folk Beliefs- A Case Study in Purulia District, West Bengal, India 


The world is degrading daily due to the overuse of natural resources, urbanization, and industrialization. When humans abuse natural resources, causing ecology to become unbalanced, the relationship between nature and man switches from symbiotic to predatory. Because belief systems substantially impact environmental behavior, ethnic adaptive folk traditions have played an important role in appraising many socio-ecological challenges. The ethnic communities throughout their territory have accumulated information over time, which in normal conditions sets them up to get by in counterbalance to their current situation, and so encourages them to counteract with the characteristic traits for their job. The main aim of the present study is the interaction between ethnic societies’ adaptive traditional beliefs and the environment, which can sustain ecosystems. The present empirical study in the Purulia district of West Bengal, India has investigated and documented ethnic communities’ traditional belief systems that can aid to conserve and preserve biodiversity.
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Changing Trends of Muslim Marriage in Contemporary Kashmir: A Sociological Study


Marriage is one of the universal social institution but it’s very difficult process to live together forever when their culture and mindset is different. But over the past several decades lot of changes has been taken place in Muslim marriage in Kashmir. The objective of the research is to study the changing trends of Muslim marriage in Kashmir. The study was exploratory in nature and random sampling method was used for analyzing the data. For collecting the data a framed scheduled was prepared and 400 respondents were interviewed for the purpose of collecting of data. The author found that there has been a significant impact on these variables..

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Prevalence of obesity and Overweight among the Adults of Gunagi community Uttar Kannada district, Karnataka, India


The objectives of the present study were to determine and compare the prevalence of underweight and obese/overweight and their associations with specific dietary patterns and demographic determinants among the Gunagi community. The cluster sampling technique and simple random sampling were taken for data collection from One hundred and forty families of the Gunagi community. There are Four hundred and twenty-six people in one hundred and forty families (two hundred and twelve males and two hundred and fourteen females). Anthropometric measurements were taken on the entire sample of four hundred and twenty-six people ranging in age from twenty to eighty-seven years old. The data were collected and entered in MS-EXCEL and analysed using SPSS software. The data was represented in mean, std—deviation, frequency and percentage. The data was analysed by using Student’s t-test and Chi-square test. The p-value of 0.05 was considered significant. The overall prevalence of underweight (BMI<18.5) and overweight/Obesity (BMI ≥22.90kg/m2) was observed to be 17.4% and 39.9%, respectively. The sex-specific prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity was higher among females than males. The study has identified that females had more overweight/obesity than males. Diet-related factors like eating a more proteinic diet, high fibre, fish diet, and green leafy vegetables have been shown to protect against obesity.

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Growth pattern and Nutritional Status among the Male Nyishi Adolescents of Doimuk, Papum Pare District, Arunachal Pradesh


The study was based on a cross-sectional study on 125 Nyishi boys aged 10 to 18 years collected from households and schools. The study aims to assess the growth pattern of male Nyishi adolescents with reference to CDC and ICMR and evaluate the grade of malnutrition using the systematic classification of Waterlow (1972) and Gomez (1956). Anthropometric variables: Height and Weight were collected from each participant. Descriptive statistics were employed to analyse the collected data. The study shows that the growth patterns of Nyishi boys were different from the data of CDC and ICMR. Growth declines at 11 age group and gradually increases from 12 years onward. The nutritional status of the Nyishi boys was slightly undernourished: 46.4% are underweight (low Body Mass Index for age), 10.4% are stunted (low height for age), and 21.6% are malnourished (low weight for age). Comparative analysis of the nutritional status of the Nyishi with other populations of North-east India shows that the Nyishi have the highest number of underweight with 46.4%, followed by Ao with 31.44%. While, Pnar has the highest malnourished (low weight for age) and stunted with 47.23% and 53.72%, respectively. The present study highlights the concerns of undernourishment among Nyishi adolescent boys, which is one of the important health issues among the tribal population of India. Nutritional awareness and intervention at the community level would be ideal for reducing such malnutrition.

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Mother Tongue and Holistic Development: A Study Among Students Aged 3 - 18 Years to Assess the Effect of Different Determiners in Educational Settings


Background/Aims: The mother tongue has an impact on educational quality since it facilitates a child’s comprehension and communication. The use of a first language in the classroom enhances learning by boosting classroom engagement and integration. The study’s goal was to see how mother tongue affected rote learning, creativity, attention span, stress level, voluntary participation, studying at home, online education, and overall student development throughout Covid-19. Methods: A multistage stratified random sample approach was used to conduct cross-sectional research. The influence of the mother language was investigated through participatory observation and on-the-spot activities. The research involved 1000 schoolchildren ranging in age from three to eighteen years old. In various areas of the study, the students’ parents were also asked to participate. Results: When learning in another language was conducted, the rate of rote learning increased, whereas creativity, attention span and voluntary participation rate decreased, and stress increased while performing the teaching-learning process at home, by parents while teaching and students while learning. The level of stress also increased due to online classes when learning was conducted in another language. As a result, when total development was studied, it was shown that one’s mother language had a good impact on students’ development. Conclusions: The study concludes by demonstrating the importance of the mother tongue in the total holistic development in educational settings. When the mother language was employed as the vehicle of expression, both the students and their parents responded positively.

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Understanding Human Dependence on Forests: A Perspective on Bangru Housing Patterns and Food Habits


This exploratory study was conducted on the forest dependency nature of the Bangru community of Arunachal Pradesh by highlighting their indigenous knowledge of housing patterns and food habits. A numerically weak community, Bangru is sited in about 15 villages of Sarli circle in Kurung Kumey district, a northernmost frontier district bordering Tibet (China) in the north-east Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. According to the Electoral Rolls conducted in 2011, the total population of Bangru was numbering about 1,023 (39.35%) out of approximately 2,600 persons in the Sarli circle. Although there is no separate Census record on this community, however, according to the data gathered, the Bangru account for about 1.14% of the total population of Kurung Kumey district. The study was carried out concerning three income groups. A total of 60 households (20 from each income group) were assessed using different participatory appraisals through semi-structured questionnaires. A special type of indigenous knowledge on housing pattern and food habit was explored in the Bangru community, which correspond to the severe dependence on forest resources.

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Towards Disaster Risk Reduction: Contextualizing Recurrent Floods In Uttar Pradesh, India


Recurrent floods cause a lot of damage to life and livelihoods of people in India annually. Every year around 75 lakh hectares of land is affected by floods, around 1600 lives are lost and damage to crops, houses and public utilities are to the tune of Rs. 1805 crores. It has been estimated that over 40 million hectares or around 12 percent of land is prone to floods in India (DM policy, 2009). This prioritizes research in this area in the backdrop of the national mission to reduce risk due to disasters. Approximately 11 percent or 27 lakh hectares of area are inundated due to floods every year in Uttar Pradesh. The vulnerability of people to floods gets aggravated in the context of luke-warm response of the state to disasters like floods. Uttar Pradesh scores low on the Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI value for UP is .380 which is below the all-India value of .467. This has important bearing on the capacity of the people in the context of disaster resilience. When disasters are seen within the larger context of development then a low HDI has direct bearing on the vulnerability of the people. In this context, the paper tries to understand that how disaster risk reduction can be achieved through community participation and other measures envisaged in the various national and global strategies for disaster risk reduction. The paper also recommends flood risk reduction from an emic perspective.

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High Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among the Wrestlers of a Folk Wrestling Style in India


Naga wrestling is an indigenous wrestling style played by the menfolk of Tenyimi tribes of Nagaland and Manipur. The present study aims to find the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Naga wrestlers, and examine the influence of height, weight, and BMI on performance. For this study, we have utilized the data of Nagaland Wrestling Association (NWA) on age, height, weight, and positions achieved from 2017 to 2020. A total of 170 wrestlers aged between 18-37 years were included in the present study. The wrestlers were divided into two categories based on age: younger wrestlers (18-25 years) and older wrestlers (26-37 years). BMI was classified using Asian cut-off points given by WHO. The mean height, weight, and BMI of Naga wrestlers are 172.74 cm, 79.51 kg, and 26.57 kg/m2, respectively. Baring height, significant variation in weight (p<0.001), and BMI (p<0.001) was observed between younger wrestlers and older wrestlers. The present study showed a high prevalence of overweight (51.8%) and obesity (34.1%) among the wrestlers. The prevalence of overweight and obesity between younger and older wrestlers was also highly significant (p<0.001). Thus, there is a positive association between BMI and its categories with advancing age. Additionally, taller and heavier wrestlers were more successful in achieving positions at wrestling tournaments. The absence of weight category in this wrestling style could be the causal factor for high incidences of overweight and obesity among the wrestlers.

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Modernization and Culture Loss: The case of Birth Rituals among Ayt Merghad


Since its independence, Morocco has witnessed a number of mutations which have resulted in radical changes in the Moroccan culture in general and the Amazigh one in particular. Although Morocco was colonized for a relatively short period of time, 1912-1956, the effect of these decades on the Moroccan society and culture is immense. The present study tries to provide an account of the impact of urbanization and modernization on the Amazigh cultural heritage in the Ayt Merghad community. More specifically, this study is concerned with the investigation of the gradual loss of the Amazigh culture in the Ayt Merghad area, with a special focus on the rituals of birth. The study also tries to determine the factors behind the disappearance of most of the practices related to these rituals. To meet the objectives of the study, an ethnographic approach was adopted. Two techniques of data collection were used, namely participant observation and in-depth interviews. To make sense of the data collected, ethnographic data analysis took place throughout the paper. The main themes of the study were identified, discussed and interpreted. The study shows that birth rituals have witnessed major changes. The data analysis has also revealed a number of factors that have led to the disappearance of most of the traditional birth rituals in the Ayt Merghad community.

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Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of School Going Children: A Study in South Odisha, India


This paper based on an explanatory design and focused on four dimensions of emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation and empathy) of school-going children drawn from standard 8th, 9th and 10th with an objective to trace relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. For this, a small sample of 120 (60 boys and 60 girls) was drawn from a co-education school of South Odisha, India. The data obtained through a pre-tested schedule-cum-questionnaire having both open and closed ended questions after considerable rapport was established. Close observations were made for a little more than two months on activities of the children in-situ during recess period on every working day continuously. It hypothesises that emotional intelligence is directly proportional to the academic achievements of school going children with significant difference between boys and girls. The result of the analysis at the outset indicated that boys have a higher value of understanding concerning the different dimensions of emotional intelligence than girls. However, there is no significant difference of the ‘t’ value (at 5% level of significance) between the boys and the girls regarding understating of the emotional dimensions. Thus, it is ascertained that irrespective of gender, the manifestation of emotional intelligence remains unaltered. Thus, the proposition of boys being better than girls is falsified. However, it was observed that those who suffer from strong wanted-control differ in their emotional intelligence and academic achievement from those who have least wanted - control.

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COVID-19 vaccination and associated side effects: Addressing the global concern over vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 virus


The concern of side effects played a major part in vaccination hesitancy of the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus worldwide. This study not only tries to address the concern over vaccination side effects, but also projects various side effects and other associated factors. 1047 individuals participated in the present study. Chi square test was used to test significance of the model. Logistic regression was used to establish association between variables in terms of odds ratio. Of the total 83.23% males and 81.14% females who took Covishield vaccine, 80% females and 73.38 % males had systemic side effects after their first dose. Among those who took Covaxin vaccine, 70.71% females and 67.07% males have had systemic side effects after their first dose of vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 virus. After the second dose the percentage of those with systemic side effects decreases in both males (54.02% Covishield, 58.02% Covaxin) and females (61.35% Covishield, 68.42% Covaxin). The probability of having the systemic side effects of the first dose of vaccine for the SARS-CoV-2 virus significantly increases 1.578 times depending on the vaccine type/brand. The age of the individual also significantly increases the chances of having side effects after both the first (OR1.024, 95% CI) and the second dose (OR 1.015, 95% CI). The number of females having the side effect is significantly higher than the males after both the doses. The cases of systemic infections declined comparatively after the second dose of the same vaccine, whereas in published work it is the other way round. The reoccurrence of COVID-19 among the fully vaccinated individuals with Covaxin is comparatively higher than those with Covishield.

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The Development of Lodha Tribe: An Anthropological Review


The Lodhas are an indigenous community living in the rural areas of West Midnapore and Jhargram district of West Bengal. My research investigation is an endeavor to present a grand narrative of Lodha life over a period of hundred and ten years, taking the Lodhas to be the subject of a historical situation and placing them on a timescale. This investigation is an attempt to present a reconstruction of the past of the Lodhas from traces persisting into the present, on the way of projecting a coherent historical narrative of the community. One of the basic objectives therefore is to raise their standard of living at par with the national average. In recent years, these communities have further been exposed to globalization through national commitment to the process. The schemes are concomitant to the development policies adopted by the government from time to time. Major focus of the research will be on the present socio-economic condition of the Lodhas in West Medinipur and Jhargram district of West Bengal in the parameter of development. This research enhances the scopes for further researches among other communities living in similar region.

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Phenotypic and Allelic Distribution of ABO Blood Groups, Rhesus Blood Type, PTC Taste Sensitivity, and Color Blindness among the Pnars of West Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya, India


The genetic structures of populations belonging to varied races and ethnic groups differ considerably in genetic markers distribution and occurrence frequencies. The present study is an attempt to describe the genetic composition of the Pnar tribe of Meghalaya, Northeast India using four genetic markers viz., ABO blood groups, Rhesus {Rh(D)} blood type, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste sensitivity, and color-blindness. Data were collected from 200 adult individuals, comprising of 100 males and females each. Based on our results, the percentage frequencies of A, B, AB, and O blood groups are 58%, 50%, 18%, and 74%, respectively. The goodness of fit test revealed significant (p<0.05) deviation of the Pnar population from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium concerning ABO blood groups. Our investigation regarding Rhesus blood type reported only one case of Rh –ve individual out of the 200 samples examined (99.50%Rh +ve vs. 0.50%Rh –ve). Regarding PTC taste sensitivity, 75% of the participants were tasters, while 25% were non-tasters. No case of red-green color deficient individual could be detected. In addition, sex differences in all the genetic markers were noted to be statistically insignificant (p>0.05). Our findings revealed a great deal of genetic affinity of the Pnars with the neighboring populations of northeast India, particularly with other tribes of Meghalaya.

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Maternal Mortality—An Ongoing Epidemic


Background: High rate of maternal mortality in developing and less developed countries is a serious public health concern which is still prevalent although several initiatives have been taken by elite public health organizations worldwide. The present review deals with the current situation of maternal mortality worldwide and associated health risk indicators/ factors contributing to the problem.

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Determinants of overweight/obesity among adult Tamang males and females of the Pakyong sub-division of East Sikkim, North-East India


The prevalence of overweight and obesity is becoming a global epidemic health problem. It is rapidly increasing in both developed and developing countries. Excess weight is associated with an increased risk of death resulting in around 2.8 million deaths of adults globally every year. Data for the present study was collected through random sampling method from adult Tamang males (84 participants) and females (102 participants) of the Pakyong sub-division of East Sikkim, North-East India. Data on height, weight, socio-economic conditions, lifestyles etc. were collected for the present study. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been evaluated by using Asian cut-off points given by the World Health Organization. The result shows that 32.09 percent and 42.16 percent of adult males and females were overweight/obesity respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher among the high-income group (males-66.67% and females-91.30%) and who attained secondary education (males-43.75% and females-44.44%). The frequency of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in both males (47.05%) and females (60.93%) who eat non-vegetables 3-4 times per week. Certain socio-economic factors such as family income, occupation, physical activities and dietary habits play an important role in determining the prevalence of overweight/obesity in the study population.

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Prevalence of undernutrition based on Mid-Upper Arm Circumference among the Preschool Children of India: A Systematic Review


Nutritional status during preschool period is a paramount importance because of their rapid growth and this period is the foundation for lifetime health, strength and intellectual vitality. Given the above fact, present review has been undertaken to get an impression of the overall MUAC based undernutrition and sex variation of undernutrition among the preschool children of India as recommended by WHO guideline. International and national databases were searched using Google search engine, and PubMed etc. This review showed that the prevalence of MUAC based undernutrition was very high among the preschool children of India. It is recommended that the policy maker may implement measurement of MUAC at primary health care level to identify severe and moderate acute malnutrition as measurement of MUAC is a very simple and very much inexpensive and non-invasive method to assess nutritional status among the young children.

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A Study of Demonic Women and the Politics of Transgression in Garo, Mizo, Lepcha Folklores and Songs


The paper attempts to understand the reconfiguring of mainstream gender specificities in tribal songs, myths and folklores of the hills of the Northeast. We intend to understand figure of the demonic/liberated/ women artists in folklores and songs of tribal communities of the hills. We begin with Mizo women poets Hmuaki, Lianchhiadri, Saikuti, sang memorable folk songs and were required to be silenced since there was a fear that their poetic abilities would surpass the men of the community. The next section will deal with Chhurbura, the greatest male figure in Mizo folklore who doubles as a male nurse besides being a traveler and person of immense wisdom. The gender boundaries grip around these forms of oral narrative in strange and complicated ways. While understanding the politics of Northeast and the effect of imperialism on indigenous language we would move onto discuss Garo Literature and configuration of the woman in their songs and myths. While there is an intense feminization of nature and land according to their myths the creator Tatara Rabuga wanted the earth to be born of a woman, Nostu Nopantu. However, poison also within the same cultural imagination is a woman Kontilognma Amebima and Chengmebima whose body is the repository of poison. So the same female body which nurtures, heals and rejuvenates is instantly demonized and rendered fearful. The paper negotiates with these imaginings which masculinizes females and feminizes males. In the Lepcha folklores which the paper intend to deal with only peripherally owing to the short time scope demonizes by recording a female Yeti who is very brutal and ugly. Thus, the paper finally attempts to understand and question the nature of the audience and their receptions of such aberrant femininity and through it understands the complex hierarchies existing in within the ethnic tribal communities.

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Iodine Deficiency Disorders among School-Aged Children with Special Reference to West Bengal, India


The mineral iodine is required by our body to make thyroid hormones which, in turn, control the body’s metabolism and other important functions like bone and brain development in infants. Deficiency in iodine leads to a wide range of health issues in individuals collectively known as Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs) which become more prevalent when the daily requirements are not met properly. Due to its geographical location in an intense goiter belt, the Indian population is prone to IDDs. According to World Health Organization (WHO), school-aged children, adolescents and pregnant mothers are at a high risk of the adverse effects of IDDs. The present paper focuses on the prevalence of TGR (total goiter rate) and UIE (urinary iodine excretion) level and household consumption of iodine salt among school-aged children in the world and in India with special reference to West Bengal.

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Antrocom, Volume 18, Number 2, 2022

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