The Ban of Non-Timber Forest Products collection effect on Soligas migration in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, India

The livelihood of tribals depends on forest resources and they have been living in the forest from time immemorial. The major sources of income for the Soligas are from Non –Timber Forest Products, subsistence agriculture, and labour. The Non –Timber Forest Products collection was banned in 2006 under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary and it affected the livelihood of the Soligas as they did not have any alternative employment. 32.5% of the Soligas migrated to different places of Kodagu, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala, as well as to nearby coffee estates and villages for employment. Soliga families migrate from 10 to 300 days in a year which has affected the children’s education, culture, health etc. The migration continues due to the influences of outside culture and lack of employment opportunities in their areas. The study will focus on the problems faced after the ban of the NTFPs, places of migration, reasons for migration, number of days of migration, wage rates, size of male and female migrants, types of work, and income produced from the migration.