Cup-and-Ring Marked Stones in Ancient Mesoamerica

This paper presents an overview of all documented examples of cup-and-ring marked stones from Mesoamerican archaeological sites in order to evaluate previous interpretations of the meanings of these enigmatic symbols. Comparisons of their site-specific contexts demonstrate that while the aquatic symbolism of these marks is perhaps their most common attribute, their local contexts varied tremendously and some of these motifs may have had calendrical or astronomical connotations.