The subject of this article is about traditional Russian embroidery and, in particular, some figures that are interpreted as archaic female deities. Initially studied by Tsarist and Soviet archaeologists and ethnographers, it found a renewed interest among American scholars linked to the feminist world. Embroidery, however, distinct from the archaeological material, for many centuries after the fall of paganism in Russia, has remained a component of the life of the people and, therefore, underwent important changes. The particular political coloring of the works on traditional Russian embroidery has influenced the interpretations of their origin and development, precisely during a period that saw the disappearance, even violent, of the rural way of life that had produced the embroidered fabrics collected by intellectuals, aristocrats, as well as Soviet officials, who transformed a family product into a commodity and then into a museum object detached from its context and transformed into a symbol of the ‘authentic’ Russian soul.