This article is an effort to understand today’s re-significations of the phenomenon of witchcraft, and how it is intertwined in the meshes of the social fabric of contemporary Africa, penetrating every aspect, up to the point of being used as a means of prosecution during judicial trials. Together with this, the gender issue makes the picture more complex and articulated; incorporating today’s social tensions, women very often suffer a stigmatization that leads them to be labeled as sorcières, and therefore imprisoned as required by the Penal Code of the Central African Republic. The first part of the article focuses on the various readings of the phenomenon of witchcraft, of which the legal one is discussed in the second part. The last section is dedicated to the gender issue, also addressed from a historical perspective.