The study of the historical context, the religion and the literary sources is a fundamental approach to define and interpret the figure of the magician in the Greek world. In the aftermath of the wars between Greece and Persia, Greek culture was strongly influenced by Persian culture, but a strong feeling of national identity against the Eastern world developed among the Greeks. Persian culture was considered devoted to the softness of being and pleasure and became the symbol for excellence of moral degradation outside the Hellenic world. The Greek authors’ testimonies and opinions on the Persian civilization and on the role of the Magi are to be inserted in this context. The study, through reading of Greek literary sources, will attempt to give a definition of the magician and magic in the Greek world and will deepen the theme of human fragility in the face of uncertainty and inability to face the difficulties of life.