Women’s Empowerment and Agency: Bottom – up and Top – down

This article aims to explore the relationship between the concepts of women’s empowerment and agency. Through a literature review, I will try to clarify the complexities of both and whether they are different or similar, whether women’s empowerment may be conceived as an “expanded agency”, or whether they may conflate into one notion. In the conclusion, by linking women’s empowerment with agency, I attempt to produce a model able to take into account the specificities of particular women in a particular context rather than seeing women’s empowerment as an abstract concept universally applicable.