Contacts between the Buddhist borderlands of India and the borderlands of Russia from the pre-modern to the contemporary periods through Lhasa and Little Lhasa

Russia and India are both multi-ethnic countries and have fostered many ethnic groups and cultures through the long course of history. Some of these borderland cultures have also developed contacts with neighbouring and far off regions. In contemporary borderland studies discourse, the borderlands are represented as the other of the core regions, and their relations with other borderland communities are seen as natural and against the hegemonic national spaces. However, the contacts between the Buddhist regions of Russia, namely, Kalmykia, Tuva and Buryatia with Lhasa and later Dharamsala (Little Lhasa), do not reveal any antagonism with the majority nationalities in both countries. This article is a historical narrative of the important contacts between the Buddhist borderlands of Russia and India that have impacted the relations between the Buddhist borderlands of the two countries.