Role of Glutathione S-Transferase Genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) in cardiovascular risk factors impairment among the urban population of Chandigarh, North India

Oxidative stress, due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) or free radicals, can increase cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs). Lifestyle, environment, and genetics are the primary reasons for ROS generation. The role of genetics in the causation of CRFs mediated by ROS is still elusive. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of null genotypes of oxidative stress genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) and cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) in an urban population. The association of GSTM1 & GSTT1 null genotypes with CRFs was also assessed in this study. A total of 40 participants (permanent residents of Chandigarh, India) were recruited. Anthropometric and physiological data were collected along with blood samples. Biochemical and molecular analysis were performed on all the collected blood samples. More than 90% of the participants had high blood pressure (HBP), 70% had obesity (OBS), and 40% had postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH). The null-genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 exhibited 47.50% and 7.50% of participants, respectively. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were higher in males than females (50% vs 42.9% and 7.7% vs 7.1%). Age-wise distribution showed that the absence of GSTM1 genotype was more in older participants (56.5% vs 35.3%) while GSTT1 genotype was more absent in younger participants (11.8 % vs 4.3%). Participants with null genotypes had trends of high CRFs, but only diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was significantly high. Although, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was also on the verge of significance. Odd ratio analysis showed a 2.383-fold risk of hyperglycemia in participants with either null genotypes. The present study concluded that studied participants are at greater risk of cardiovascular diseases due to high trends of CRFs. High CRFs may be related to the null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 in the urban environment. Further studies with a bigger sample size are warranted to establish the results of the present study.