Online Journal of Anthropology

Volume 19, Number 1, 2023

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 The Great Comet of 1264 AD in Rock Art - Two Views from North America


Almost all prehistoric rock art in North America can be relatively dated by style, motif, scientific methods (e.g. Carbon dating of organic pigments used in pictographs), oral traditions or, in other cases, the archaeological process. Absolute dates, however, are rare to non-existent. This dilemma tentatively changed with the discovery of a comet pictograph in New Mexico and subsequent investigation led by a team from the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Their determination was that the pictograph firmly depicted the Great Comet of 1264 AD. It remained a sole rarity until almost a decade later when serendipity played a role while attending the 2022 Eastern States Rock Art and Research Association conference in St. Louis. During an afternoon presentation, it was learned that, in Pennsylvania, there is a petroglyph of what is unambiguously a comet pecked into a boulder resting midstream of the nearly mile-wide Lower Susquehanna River. Almost more remarkable is that this image may well represent the same comet, i.e. The Great Comet of 1264 AD. Furthermore, because the comet nucleus is depicted near or in conjunction with a waning crescent moon at both sites, the event depicted in the rock art images by two eye witnesses, though separated by 1700 miles, can be dated to the early to late morning of August 17, 1264 AD.

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Preistorico o non-preistorico? Approccio tecno-funzionale per la definizione degli obiettivi di produzione e utilizzo delle pietre focaie dall’insediamento rupestre di rivolta (Ginosa - Taranto)


The Ginosa archaeological storage reorganization, has made it possible to isolate and study the lithic set found at the rupestrian settlement of Rivolta, in the ravine of Ginosa (Taranto). In 2004 an archaeological research campaign in the settlement led to the stratigraphic excavation of a cistern (15th-18th century AD. For the filling action, this work proposes an episode contemporary or subsequent to the 18th century AD). The paper exposes how mechanical tinder flints can be recognized in comparison with prehistoric flints, describing the Techno-Functional aspects in a morphological-technological and traceological sense. In US 6, 11 lithic products have been documented: 9 between Paleolithic supports and cores made from the chert of the Fossa Bradanica, divided into systemic categories Kombewa-Levallois, Levallois, Non-Levallois and bipolar on an anvil, as well as pièces esquillées; 2 tinder flint stones in nodular flint, for which one was also hypothesized to be used for manual rubbing, a hypothesis that in this article is revisited by means of new considerations of an experimental nature. The Techno-Functional approach of the tinder flint stones made it possible to identify them as such, by retracing the processes of realization of the production aims, supported by the functional analysis for the evaluation of actual use.

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Relativismo linguistico versus relativismo culturale: fra l’estetica di Benedetto Croce e l’antropologia di Edward Sapir


The following pages take their cue from Edward Sapir’s contributions to linguistic research, starting with his reference to Benedetto Croce’s theories (Language. An introduction to study of speech, 1921). The reasons for a possible comparison between the two authors will be explored in depth, firstly emphasising the main points of convergence and then illustrating the substantial differences that emerge from such a comparison. The reflection will revolve around two thematic centres: language in its aesthetic articulation, the point of strongest similarity between Croce and Sapir, and languages in their social and anthropological connotations, the decisive point of rupture, thanks to which Sapir will overcome the radical subjectivism of his teacher.
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The Flight of the Owl: the Wabeno, the Windigo, the Wendigokan, the Morning Star, and Mexican Echoes in Anishinabe Culture


This article starts from a cue provided by some Algonquian etymologies, starting from the Proto Algonquian term *wi-nteko-wa, through a series of cognates in the various Algonquian languages. These words develop four meanings: that of windigo, a cannibal spirit or a human who becomes a cannibal, that of owl, that of specter, ghost, and that of madman, jester. Connected to these meanings, there are a series of gods, mythical characters, practitioners of the sacred and ceremonies, whose origins are prehistoric and are linked to the diffusion of the cultural-ritual-economic-bellic complex of corn farming from Mesoamerica to the Great Lakes. The importance of the Venus cycles, the relationship between the Morning Star, warfare, and winter, and the Wabenowin, the Dawn Society of the Anishinabe tribes are prominent within this complex. Finally, I will explore the meaning of the Wabeno paintings of the drum collected by Beltrami in 1823 and housed in the E. Caffi Museum in Bergamo, Italy, as well as its probable owner.
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Ethnic Symbols in Present and Past: A Theoretical Framework


The purpose of this paper is to outline a general theoretical framework regarding the cultural, linguistic and phenotypical symbols that can mark ethnic boundaries. Reflection on ethnic symbols will be guided by an anti-essentialist, relational and dynamic approach to ethnicity, as well as the idea that, beyond its various local embodiments, ethnicity presents a unitary core that transcends the distinction between the pre-modern and modern worlds. In the paper, the relationship between the symbols used to signal or determine ethnic membership and the myths of origin translated into the principle of recruitment by birth will be investigated. The distinctions between symbols of auto- and hetero-identity and between criteria and indicia of identity will also be discussed. We will then explore some aspects of the selection, organisation, mobilisation and evolution of the sets of symbols. The focus will subsequently be placed on the symbolic dimension of the interactions between the malleable aspects of ethnicity and the constraints that limit the freedom of social actors. Finally, we will look at the complex contextual variations in sets of auto-identity symbols.

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The Representation of “Otherness” in Moroccan Arabic Proverbs and Jokes. The Case of Imazighen


Coexisting with the ‘other’ and tolerating their differences is one of the most striking issues upon which one’s safety, social stability and well-being are based. Numerous are theories that approach the concept of alterity from multilayered perspectives; their main concern is to find out some socio-psychological interpretations to people’s representations of the “other” versus “the self” within the same society. This said, the Moroccan society witnesses the circulation of a set of stereotypical proverbs and jokes referring to Moroccan Imazighen as a different “other”. Such representations embedded with prejudices and discrimination may unveil new terrains of hatred, social conflicts among groups and open up a wide gap between, at least, two dichotomies the most favored and privileged identities versus the less favored and primitive ones. Accordingly, this paper would explore the notion of alterity as it is represented in a corpus of Moroccan Arabic proverbs and jokes from the eyes of two theories: The Self categorization theory and The social identity.

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Maternal Nutrition and Fetus Growth: A Bio-Cultural Study in Pune


The relationship between the diet of a mother and the wellbeing of a fetus and an infant continues to be a matter of great importance despite uncertainty and controversy because of various dimensions attached to it. The current study was undertaken to reveal the association between maternal nutrition and foetal growth parameters. A total of 455 ultrasound observations from 229 respondents were collected using a Prospective Observational Cohort Mixed Longitudinal study design in second and last trimester of pregnancy from one private and two government hospitals in Pune, India where direct interviews were conducted to find out dietary habits and practices apart from 24-hour diet recall survey and Food frequency questionnaire. The result shows positive correlation between Nuts and Oil Seeds & FL; Meat and Poultry & BPD and negative correlation between Phosphorus & HC; Riboflavin & HC; New Iron & HC; New Iron & AC; Old Iron & HC; Sodium & HC; Sodium & AC; Moisture & HC; Mineral & HC; Fiber & HC; Copper & AC; Condiments and Spices & W@B. The study might help with dietary recommendations by medical practitioners to improve the foetal and maternal health.

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Pervasive Effect of Psychological Distress on General Public and Caregivers of a Person with Mental Illness: A Review


Psychological distress is a global phenomenon arresting people with Common Mental Disorders (CMD). Prolonged distress often leads to severe mental illness too. The current lifestyle has created this menace affecting the general public and caregivers of people with mental illness. The current review paper has discussed the pervasive effect of psychological distress on different kinds of populations and how it affects them. Through legislation, private, and public entities and government policies can effectively create a healthy lifestyle and minimize psychological distress.

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The Gift of Lah-Suk: The Traditional Practice of the Konyak Tribe of the Tobu Area


As the title indicates, the present work is to analyze and understand the traditional practice of gift-giving among the Konyak of the Tobu area. In recent years, many changes have taken place in the social and cultural front that resulted in the giving up of traditional practices such as animism, tattooing, etc. However, the tradition of gift-giving is among the few that have survived among the people. Gift-giving is an intriguing and universal practice found in all societies which are still yet to be interpreted by social scientists and anthropologists have always been fascinated by it. The value of gift-giving usually reflects the weight of a relationship. The value of gift-giving can be balanced with respect to the social positions of both the donor and recipients. It is a practice that integrates a society and this practice can be seen among the people of the Konyak tribe. The gift locally known as lah-suk is a pig thigh. It is usually given to the woman of one’s family who is already married to another man from a different family. The problem is thus to understand how this practice of gift-giving has its place in the Konyak society. The goal is to understand the paradigm of such practice by applying the method of observation and interview and by supplementing it with secondary sources. The result of this study is the discovery of its importance in relation to marriage and family, and the position of women in contemporary Konyak society. By studying the traditional practice and tampering with the anthropological perspective, one’s own understanding can be enriched in the understanding of the gift-giving practice.

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Witch-Hunt Accusations And Violence Against Women Among Misings Of Assam, India


Witchcraft and witch-hunt cases are frequently reported in the news media from Assam, India. Most often, women are the victims of witch-hunts in this region. They identify a witch based on suspicion without any evidence of harm being done. Upon identification as a witch by a mibo (a ritual specialist), they are subjected to severe punishments such as physical abuse, humiliation, social boycott, and even death. In several cases, the witch-hunt victims go through severe psychological trauma from which they could never recover. There is no social support mechanism as the community disowns them. In this context, the present study inquires into the belief system of the Mising society of Assam and the role of witchcraft. It further explores the accusations causing the witch-hunt and the implications on the witch-hunt survivors from a feminist perspective. In doing so, the paper analyses the power struggle in the Mising community and its operation in stigmatising women and making them the victims of violence.

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Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure among Preschool Children under ICDS of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India -3 and -4


One among five children under five years are stunted. There are 149.2 million and 45.4 million preschool children are stunted and wasted respectively. According to the Global Hunger Index report 2022, India ranked 107th among 121 countries having serious hunger level. The present study analyses the Composite index of Anthropometric failure (CIAF) and Z score to assess the nutritional condition of among preschool children under 6 years old of ICDS of Maynaguri Block, Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal. Two anthropometric variables i.e., height and weight were measured from 607 (boys: 301and girls: 306) children and stunting, wasting, underweight and CIAF were calculated. There is a significant mean of height between different age groups where F= 483.62; p<0.0001. There is also a significant mean difference of weight between different age groups F= 170.32; p<0.0001. Age and sex specific maximum prevalence of wasting among 5 years old girls (37.7 %), stunting among 2 years old girls (29.57 %), underweight among 2 years old boys (44.44%) and CIAF among 2 years old boys (59.72 %) was observed. Prevalence of under nutrition according to NCHS standard, current study found that wasting 28.82 %, stunting 19.76 % and underweight 36.57 % respectively. Prevalence of undernutrition using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure observed 46.62 % of the studied sample. The Composite index of anthropometric failure of the present study is higher than those of the Kashmiri children, children of Raipur & Santal children from West Bengal.

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On History of the Mech Kacharis’ of Assam


India is the world’s largest democratic and secular country and has diversified religious, socio-cultural, and ethnic communities. North East India has been the abode of diverse ethnic groups. Assam has around 23 scheduled tribes and the Mech Kachari are one of them. Though there have been mentioned pieces of evidence in various texts and scriptures, there are not much data in the form of books and journals available on the Mech Kachari’s. Mech Kachari has faced several problems such as changes and transformation and has also gone through the phase of an identity crisis. In the pages of history, there has been mention of the Mech Kachari’s but there were no written works on the Mech Kachari’s. For this paper, oral history is used. Secondary data from books, journals were used. The sample size was 20 people. The objective of this research was to look into the rich history of the Mech Kachari’s and their evolution throughout the years. And, also looks into the present position of the Mech Kachari’s in Assam.

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Death Ceremony in a Lepcha Village: Amak-Sa-Dihrim


The paper dwells into the concept of death and afterlife for the Lepchas. The Lepcha concept of death and funeral is in itself one of the earliest ideas which have existed for a very long time. The Lepcha ritual practice varies from their traditional to the so called present day syncretised methods and ideals. From the importance of Bongthings and muns, to the cultural beliefs of purity and mourning, the paper aims to describe the rituals and the concept of death from a Lepcha’s perspective. From the observation of the death of a family member to the purification of the family members, it aims to look into the various stages through which the funeral ceremony passes through.

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Autoethnography of Bicycling: Reflections from the Field Experiences of Cycling and Randonneuring in Hyderabad, India


The essay utilises autoethnography while adopting an explorative research strategy. The phd thesis project on randonneuring served as the inspiration for the paper. The article details the complete process in a chronological way. It is a reflection on the fieldwork experiences. The fieldwork was carried out between August 2015 and October 2018 in Hyderabad, India. It is divided into three stages. The paper presents a detailed descriptive account of how the researcher was moving through different stages of the study. In stage 1, I describe how I stepped into the cycling world. This stage is marked by learning about the cycle and getting acquainted with the city’s cycling community. This includes more of commuting and leisure riding. In stage 2, I participate in local races and venture into longer rides and eventually become a randonneur, i.e., further improving my skills, training and gauging my fitness level. In Stage 3, I have participated in the randonneuring events as a randonneur completing the Super Randonneur series (i.e., 200, 300, 400 and 600kms rides). The article provides specific anecdotes to build a better context for understanding the subjective experience of the cycling culture.

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A Description Of The Concept - Financial Capability


Financial capability refers to a person’s capacity to manage their ongoing financial requirements in accordance with their evolving interests. In particular during the current economic depression, policymakers and researchers have challenging financial situations. This essay’s goal is to discuss how to gauge financial aptitude with a particular emphasis on four broad areas: budgeting, staying informed, selecting products, and preparing ahead.

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Menstrual Health and Hygiene among Lodha Tribes in West Bengal, India: A Study Based on Perception and Practice


Menstruation is a normal physiological phenomenon unique to females. However, menstrual practices are surrounded by lots of taboos and myths which lead to adverse health problems. Primitive Groups of Tribes (pgts) like the Lodha community are one of the most underprivileged communities. The purpose of the study is to understand the perception and practices related to menstrual health and hygiene among Lodha tribes. A cross-sectional study data has been collected randomly from 50 adults Lodha women of reproductive age group (18-49 years) in Jhargram district of West Bengal with the help of a structured interview schedule. The data revealed that the perception of menstruation was very poor among the Lodhas. Menstrual hygienic practices were dissatisfying among those older than younger. Young Lodha females followed more hygienic methods than elders. 66% had the perception that reusable clothes cannot cause any health problems and 88% habituated to using unhygienic reusable clothes. Almost 40% of women did not receive any health service to manage menstrual complications. Effective public health communication along with proper preventive and curative health care services can improve the health perception and behaviour among these pvtgs.

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Anthropometry Based Nutritional Status among the Adult Birhors: A Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (Pvtg) of Purulia District, West Bengal, India


The tribal population is at a higher risk of undernutrition. It which leads to different deficiency diseases and even death by decreasing body immunity. The problem of undernutrition is more severe among pvtgs. Therefore, the present paper aims to investigate the prevalence of undernutrition through the two most conventional anthropometric indicators. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 143 (68 males and 75 females) adult Birhor (pvtgs) tribal people of five Birhor villages of Purulia district, West Bengal, India. The present study’s findings revealed that the mean values of height, weight and MUAC among males were significantly higher than their counterparts. However, no significant sex difference was noticed in the mean BMI. The overall prevalence of BMI-based undernutrition was 39.72 %, and females (44.59 %) were undernourished than males (34.33 %). Whereas the overall prevalence of MUAC-based undernutrition was 32.87 %, females (40.00 %) shared more undernutrition rate than males (25.00 %). The present study revealed that this Particularly Vulnerable Trible group still suffers from undernutrition stress. Both State and Central Government agencies should take appropriate steps to reduce the burden of malnutrition among the vulnerable tribal people.

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Use of Upper Arm Anthropometry as an Indicator of Nutritional Status and Body Composition among Children


To provide useful estimations of body composition and nutritional status the upper arm anthropometry has a potential role. This cross-sectional study were to assess body composition and nutritional status of rural school-going children using upper arm anthropometric measures such as upper arm muscle area-by-height (UAMAH) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for-height. The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 834 children of Assam, North East India (boys 395, girls 439) aged 6-12 years and selected using a stratified random sampling method. Height, weight, MUAC and triceps skinfold (TSF) were recorded. Body composition and nutritional status were assessed using upper arm muscle area (UMA), upper arm fat area (UFA), UAMAH and MUAC-for height. Overall adiposity in context to age-sex-specific in TSF, UFA, arm fat index and upper-arm fat area estimates were higher among girls than boys (p<0.01), but upper-arm muscle area estimates (UME) were observed to be higher among boys than girls (p<0.05). Low prevalence of undernutrition was found among boys and girls using UAMAH, (0.00%) and (10.25%) respectively. The overall prevalence of low MUAC-for height was higher among boys (70.63%) than girls (61.05%) (p>0.05). Findings of the present study are important in providing more insight for future studies in the field and large epidemiological settings.

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A Study of the Jonbeel Mela among the Tiwas of Assam


Fairs and festivals celebrating different cultures have been an integral part of human society for a very long time. Celebrations have long piqued the interest human being due to the significant roles they play in society as well as the far-reaching cultural and social repercussions that ritual and celebration can have. It is important that diverse cultures, and especially those human groups who live in close proximity to one another, keep the peace and harmony they have achieved over time and do not allow it to be disrupted. Festivals and fairs can play a key role in generating such a nice atmosphere, which can play a substantial role in helping to fulfil the purpose that is intended. Since ancient times, India’s numerous religious and ethnic communities have greatly profited from the upbeat environment that has been produced by the country’s many magnificent fairs and festivities. This has been the case since India is home to so many diverse communities. The Tiwas of Assam celebrate a festival called Jonbeel Mela, which is critical for the Tiwas to maintain peace and friendship with other groups. Through an assessment of the Jonbeel Mela, a celebration held in the Marigaon district of Assam, India, the objective of this study is to learn about the unity and collaboration among the Tiwas and other populations in the surrounding area and within the state of Assam.

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Consanguineous Marriage and Associated Risk of Congenital Malformations: A Study among the Muslims of Barpeta District, Assam


Consanguinity refers to the practice of marrying or having children with close relatives. Congenital malformation, on the other hand, refers to physical or structural abnormality that is present at birth. Consanguinity can increase the risk of congenital malformations because close relatives are more likely to carry same harmful genes which can increase the risk of child inheriting two copies of the same harmful genes. The present study was conducted among the Bangla speaking Muslims of Barpeta district, Assam because among the Muslim consanguineous marriage is a permissible form of marriage. The aim of the study is to look into the frequency of consanguineous marriage and also the prevalence of congenital malformation among the children born out of consanguineous mating. Genealogical method was used to assess the consanguinity status of the population. A total of 836 married couples have been considered under the present study out of which 273 are consanguineous marriages and 563 are non-consanguineous. Data have been collected from two geographical locations, Char (mid-channel bars) and Non-char (built up area). The average coefficient of inbreeding for char areas is 0.035229 and for non-char areas is 0.0291. The populations mean coefficient of inbreeding for char areas is 0.004003299 and for non-char areas is 0.0026358. The combined mean coefficient of inbreeding is 0.003335722. The frequency of consanguineous marriages is found to be high in char(40.68%) than non-char(25.93%). A statistically significant result has been observed in the prevalence of congenital malformations among the children born out of consanguineous and non-consanguineous marriages.

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Inauspicious Dreams among the Mishings of Assam, Northeast India


Dreams are typically described as involuntary mental events that occur during a specific stage of sleep, involving a series of thoughts, images, and sensations that manifest as a dream. Dream study in a community can promote greater understanding and empathy among individuals by creating a space where people can share their dreams and learn from one another’s experiences. By fostering a sense of connection and shared experience, it can enrich the knowledge of the community’s perception and psychoanalytic interpretation of the dreams and significance in that community. The present study describes the interpretation and significance of inauspicious dreams among the Mishing community of Assam. Conventional anthropological methods, such as observation, structured and unstructured interviews, and informal conversations, were used for data collection. Secondary sources have been considered for a thorough review of the available literature. The interviews were conducted at various levels, including individual, group, and detailed discussions with the villagers. In the Mishings society, dreams act as a means that foretells or predicts the future; it may be good or bad, where good dreams bring wealth and prosperity to the dreamer and their household, whereas bad dreams bring misfortunes. They also believe dreams as a mode of communication for the dead with the living, where the ancestor of a living visits them in their dreams to let them know about their well-being or displeasure. Dreams that are considered as bad are taken seriously by the members of the community as bad dreams create uneasiness within the dreamer as they have strong beliefs that the predictions of the bad dreams which they have been following as an age-old tradition bear results that can never be ignored. Accordingly, they wait for good results when they dream of something good. Certain dreams are believed to carry important messages relevant to the individual or their family..

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Styles Of Attachment And Decision-Making On Quality Of Life Among College Students


This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between attachment styles, decision-making styles, and quality of life among college students. A sample of 180 college students, including both graduates and postgraduates, recruited through the unrestricted self-selected survey method completed the Adult Attachment Scale, General Decision-Making Scale, and Quality of Life instrument. The objectives were to examine the prevalence of different attachment and decision-making styles among college students and to explore their associations with quality of life. The results showed that attachment styles were significantly related to decision-making styles, with avoidantly attached students more likely to adopt a rational decision-making approach. The study also found that decision-making styles were associated with quality of life, with the rational decision-making style strongly related to quality of life. These findings highlight the importance of considering both attachment and decision-making styles in understanding college students’ quality of life. Furthermore, the study provides evidence that avoidantly attached students can still make effective decisions and have a good quality of life, challenging common misconceptions about their abilities.

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Occupational Health Status of Tobacco Processing Workers in Nippani Taluk, Belgaum District of Karnataka- An Anthropological Study


The purpose of this study is to assess the health status of tobacco processing workers in Nippani Taluk, Belgaum District of Karnataka. Nippani city was purposefully chosen for the study because tobacco processing is one of the main jobs in the city, and Nippani is well known for its high-quality tobacco production. To collect the samples, a simple random sampling method was used. Interview schedules were used to conduct interviews with tobacco processing workers. A total of 825 workers were interviewed for the current research. The study reveals that the tobacco processing workers are economically deprived and less educated. The analysis of the data reveals that tobacco processing workers suffer from many health problems. Cough, Breathlessness, Headache, Burning Vision, Lower back pain, Weakness of hand, Acidity/Epigastric pain, and Abdomen pain, Nausea/Vomiting, Skin Diseases, Palpitation, and Dental Problem are common health problems among tobacco processing workers. They experienced these health problems as a result of their prolonged exposure to tobacco dust during their working hours. Workers neglect to use precautionary measures, and it is suggested that proper education about the importance of precautionary measures be provided to tobacco processing workers in order to avoid health problems caused by tobacco processing.

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Rites of Passage: A Study of the Hanji Community Living in the Bandipora District of Kashmir Valley


Each culture has its own set of customs and traditions. Beginning with birth and concluding with death, the life cycle is a metaphor for the journey of an individual through the phases of life. This includes childhood, youth, adulthood, and old age. Rituals are especially crucial for events that occur throughout the course of a life cycle since they both cause and symbolise transformations. Throughout key life cycle events and transitions, such as birth, marriage, and death, traditions are frequently observed. These are all common life cycle phases. Religious and cultural societies employ a number of rites to commemorate the transition from infancy to maturity. This study was primarily focused on the life cycle rituals of the Hanji group, which encompassed pre-birth, birth, marriage, and death. The fundamental purpose of the research was to discover not only the hidden significance of the rituals observed by the fishing communities of the Kashmir valley, but also the pattern of their evolution over time. This article is based on primary data that was collected between the years May 2019 and January 2022 as part of the phd fieldwork in the Haanji community of the Bandipora district in Jammu and Kashmir, using various anthropological research tools and methods like participant observation, focus group discussions, case studies, and interviews.

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Insurgency and Socioeconomic Development: A Sociological Examination of the Impact of Boko Haram Insurgency on Commercial Activities in the Yobe State, Nigeria


The study is designed to examine the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on commercial activities in the Damaturu Local Government Area of the Yobe State, Nigeria. Mixed research method using both quantitative (structured questionnaire) and qualitative (in-depth interview) research techniques was used. 385 respondents were sampled using the Creative Research System formula for sample size calculation. The quantitative data obtained were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics while Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was employed for analysis of the qualitative data. The study revealed that the Boko Haram crisis has seriously affected the socioeconomic development and commercial activities of the study area the destructions of markets, killings and abductions of business owners. Finally, the study suggested that the Government of the Yobe State should initiate a good pro-poor social investment programs for small and medium business operators, the government should reopen all closed markets for the purpose of commercial activities in the communities where relative peace has been restored and finally the government should provide more security to enable the populace restart their commercial activities and suitable environment for business operations.

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Proletariat to Precariat: The Changing Nature of Tea Workers of North Bengal


The tea industry is a labour-intensive industry. The distinct form of production relation in the tea industry not only established itself but also established a social system for the tea workers (Bhowmik 1980). The tea industry has reproduced poverty and disadvantage position for workers generation after generation and succeeded in perpetuating a downward spiral. (Gothoska 2012). After trade liberalisation and introduction of globalisation in tea business, the surplus labour force in tea industry were left with limited work and no other resources. This surplus labour force is absorbed in different areas as precarious labour. The paper tries to explore different aspects of precariousness of tea workers and how the tea industry is acting as a reservoir for such precariat.

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Civic Education Policy of Travancore: Rereading A Letter


TThis paper is a theoretical analysis of a letter written by the missionaries of Travancore to the British Resident in 1822, which explained the condition of Christianity in the region and the progress of education as well as the policies adopted for educational and religious transmission. It is a pertinent document to analyze the early modernity in the region and of how modern educational policies had its genesis in colonial-missionary backdrop. While the letter is concerned about the success of Christian missions in upbringing a generation with civic policies in central Travancore, the concern for Christianity is also evident in the document. Such reporting represents the connections between colonial administrators and missionaries, and shows the larger interconnections of power, religion and civic policy.
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Maye: An Endangered Agricultural Ritual Practice of the Tangam (Adi) Tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India


One of the most fertile areas of modern cultural research is the study of Rituals performed by indigenous communities. Rituals maintain and preserve the cultural identity of a society, especially, in preliterate oral tribal societies of the world. In such communities, Agriculture and Religion are intrinsically linked to the socio-religious sphere of their life. Their survival is solely based on human-nature dynamics. Such communities practice nature-worshipping and believe in the interconnectivity of the physical and supernatural worlds. Hence, they perform many rituals to appease the malevolent and to express gratitude to benevolent supernatural beings, deities, and spirits. Tangams are one such animist community that is the least populated and lesser-known ethnolinguistic group of Arunachal Pradesh. Their everyday life is based on the performance of several rites and rituals. These ritual performances are part of their cultural heritage. However, such practices are slowly in decline due to various internal and external factors. Therefore, this paper is a descriptive attempt to document, elucidate, preserve, and disseminate the dying Maye ritual practice and its associated belief systems.
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Metabolic Syndrome among Obese and Overweight Adults among the Uttarakhand Kumaon Population


Non-communicable diseases like stroke, cancer, heart disease, chronic lung diseases, and diabetes are together responsible for around 70% of all deaths across the world. This mets is one of the main reasons for increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, regardless of age, sex, or family history of diabetes. Obese and overweight people are at more risk of developing these chronic illnesses. The aim and objectives of this research were to evaluate the incidence of Metabolic syndrome among the Uttarakhand population and the correlation of obesity with mets and its constituents. A cross-sectional study was led in Uttarakhand – Haldwani (150 males and 150 females) aged 18-65 years. The National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel procedures were used for the determination of risk factors and measurements. According to the NCEP ATP III guidelines, the incidence of mets among obese subjects was around 53.8%. In males and females, it also differs with a percentage of 55.1 and 59 respectively. Considering the mets prevalence is higher among the individuals having fallen under the obese class, health management strategies were needed to reduce the illnesses and the death rate in the Uttarakhand adult population..

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Existence Of Supernatural Beings In Rituals: An Ethnographic Study Of The Koch Birth Ritual Of Assam


The purpose of this paper is to shed light on birth ceremonies of the Koches of Assam in their socio-cultural context. The birth ceremony is a crucial life cycle ritual that serves as a personal emblem for their folk religiosity while also carrying their collective identity. By analysing Koch’s birth ritual, the author tries to provide an anthropological explanation of supernatural creatures’ engagement in their socio-religious existence. Their folk spirituality is reflected in their ceremonies and activities. In addition, a theoretical aspect relating to Koch birth ritual (in particular) is presented. The Koch birth ritual’s various ritual phases are viewed and analysed from the perspective of the community. Koch’s birth ritual is studied to understand how much a person’s life cycle ritual has carried the religiosity of their community’s folk life.

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Healing System And The Contribution Of Traditional Herbalists To The Bru Community In Mizoram


The health care system in India is famous for its dynamics with its sources of medicine and treatment systems. The healing system in different rural communities consists of Shamanistic healing and traditional herbal medicine. The Bru communities settled in Mizoram, India, use indigenous herbal medicine due to various transportation issues, affordability and accessibility to modern health care services. This study examines the types of healers present and their healing mechanisms for different purposes of community life, including illnesses and diseases using the lens of anthropological, historical and sociological perspectives. Methodologically, it is an ethnographic study that emphasized the in-depth interview sessions of the herbalists in five villages in the Mamit district of Mizoram. The study was conducted for 10 months in 2019 and 2022. However, a worry about losing such traditional knowledge has started already. There is a considerable gap in the traditional knowledge of medicine between the younger and older generations.

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Association Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (Pcos) With Anthropometric Dietary Habits Of Above 18 Years Of Females Of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarha


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition characterized by elevated androgen levels, menstrual irregularities, and/or small cysts on one or both ovaries. PCOS is a life style disorder that is influenced by ethnicity, genotype, and environmental factors. This present study is a cross-sectional study conducted among, 100 females aged above 18 years of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. The purposive random sampling method has been used for collecting data. Data were collected from the females based on their socio-economic status and hygiene practices along with different anthropometric variables. The aims and objective of the present study is to see the association of anthropometric variables on PCOS of studied females and also to study the impact of dietary habits on the COS of studied females. The findings of the current study indicated that there is a significant relationship between PCOS and height (r= 0.298*, p= 0.05). The study also demonstrates a positive relationship between the examined females dietary chart and their TSF, SSSF, and PBF. This study also found that the majority of females with PCOS have normal BMI. Furthermore, the females of O+ blood group (31%) is prominent in this study.

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Sustainability and Change In Ethnomedicinal Practice and Healing Systems of the Traditional Fishing Communities in Coastal West Bengal


The present paper deals with ethnomedicinal practices of the traditional fishing communities in the coastal areas of West Bengal. The traditional fishermen have used various medicinal plants for curing health-related problems and diseases for a long time. The ethnomedicinal system among them is quite diverse and old. In most cases, conventional knowledge was applied in primary health care. Usually, the fishing community members have a better understanding of ethnomedicinal practices as it is available in the local areas instead of modern medical systems. The phenomenon is that they gradually left their old traditions and practices, rather accustomed to new emerging situations. In many cases, it happened due to the effects of infrastructural development, governmental influences, modernization, acculturation etc. The spread of education as well as the increasing level of consciousness also play a vital role. Here an attempt has been made to realize the conventional uses of various ethnomedicinal substances among the traditional fishing communities and successive changes come in the scenario. It is mainly a fieldwork-based study that is conducted in the traditional fishing communities’ concentrated villages in the two coastal districts of West Bengal. To conduct the study, conventional anthropological field methods have been used with due importance.

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Ethnomedicinal Knowledge and Practices: A Study among the Khamtis of Assam


Age at natural menopause is a vital biological event in every woman’s life because of the increase in diseases and other problems after middle age. The timing of the menopause can’t be accurately predicted or determined and differs greatly from one woman to another and from one ethnic group to another. The cross-sectional study was conducted among the rural women of North Karnataka. The study includes 101 rural women who were farmers, labourers and housewives, have achieved menopause naturally (women with oophorectomy were excluded). The main objective of the present study is to find out the age at natural menopause, factors determining the event, examination of symptoms prevailing and to report the attitude of women towards menopause. The multiple regression analysis of the variables with the age at natural menopause showed the significant positive association of age of respondents, occupation, age at menarche, breastfeeding duration and significant inverse correlation with marital status and education with age at natural menopause. The study also found that the great number of women with the habit of consuming gutka, tobacco with betel leaf and nuts had bad oral health and reported much oral distress after menopause. 45.5% women had a positive attitude towards menopause. These women seek independence after menopause. Whereas 42.5% women didn’t find any difference in living before and after menopause.

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Mapping The Menstrual Characteristics among the Married Kuki Women in Rural Manipur: A Community Based Study


Menstruation research is an important aspect of women’s health. The pursuit of inclusive health has increased the importance of women’s health in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to delve into the knowledge, attitudes, and the relationship between menstrual diseases and health-seeking behaviour. The current research was carried out on married Kuki women from two blocks in Manipur’s Kangpokpi District. 491 Kuki married women with at least one child are included in this study. In this work, a pre-planned schedule is used. Fieldwork took place between December 2018 and November 2019. The primary goal of this study is to look into the age of menarche, menstrual knowledge prior to menarche, and menstrual abnormalities in relation to health seeking behaviour. According to the findings, the average age of menarche is 14.74 years. Prior to attending menarche, 382 (77.8 %) of the women had no knowledge, while 109 (22.2 %) were well educated in menstrual information. Women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are more likely to experience dysmenorrhoea (p<0.001). To summarise, the importance of socio-demographic variables in menstruation research is emphasised in this study.

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Effect of Age at Marriage and Women’s Empowerment on Domestic Violence Experienced by Women in Some Selected States of India


In this paper we consider age at marriage to explain the risk of experiencing domestic violence by married women through some measures of women’s empowerment using data from NFHS-4 in India. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression is fitted to estimate the relative risk of experiencing domestic violence by women marrying at different ages. In the North and North Eastern region urban women marry later than rural women whereas in Kerala both urban and rural women marry at approximately the same age. Results show that women marrying between 18 – 25 years have a better status and less risk of experiencing domestic violence as compared to those married early or late in all the regions under study. Women who are involved in making household decisions have less risk reporting domestic violence and women who justify wife beating are at a higher risk of reporting domestic violence.

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Unveiling The Past: A Study of Traditional Social Institutesin Pre-Vaishnavite Kangleipak (Manipur) Valley


This paper intends to give an in-depth assessment of traditional social institutions during the pre-Vaishnavite period in the Kangleipak (Manipur) valley, with a particular emphasis on the Meitei population. Since ancient times, they have been involved in making significant contributions to the culture and society of the region. The present paper will delve into patriarchal society by investigating the father’s role, the status of women, marriage customs, birth rituals, inheritance, death rituals etc. It will further explore how these institutions have changed over time and how they are practised now. The paper will provide more profound and holistic insights into the social institutions of the pre-Vaishnavite era and their influence on the Meitei community.

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Risk Factors of Coronary Artery Disease: A Comparative Study among the Two Populations of Faridabad


The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of coronary risk factors among Jaat (n=50) and Vysya men(n=50) in two populations of Faridabad, namely Vaishya males (n=50) and Jaat males (n=50). The age of the study subjects was ≥20 years. A significantly higher prevalence of general obesity(P=0.000), hypertension (P=0.02), and positive family history of CAD(P=0.03) were observed in Vysya when compared to Jaat men. The results of the present study suggest that a population-specific than a global approach should be pursued in the screening of high-risk groups for the prevention of CAD in our country.

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Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Antenatal Care-Seeking Behaviour among Women of South Sikkim, India


Background: Pregnancy is the most crucial thing for every mother. Providing appropriate health care services during pregnancy by skilled health care professionals is important for healthy childbirth and better maternal health outcomes. Despite Antenatal care services being free at the Public Hospital in Sikkim, many pregnant women are reluctant to get ANC services because of many socio-economic and demographic factors. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify various socio-economic and demographic determinants affecting ANC services utilization among rural women of South Sikkim, India. Methods: The community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 reproductive-aged (15-49) women residing in South Sikkim, India. The data on various socio-economic and demographic determinants associated with utilization of antenatal care services were collected by adopting a pre-structured schedule interview method by household visits. Results: A total of 73.4% reported that they have utilized the ANC services among women in South Sikkim. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that several socio-economic and demographic variables of age, age at marriage, age at pregnancy, marital status, family income, education, education of husband, occupation of husband parity and family income were significantly associated with ANC visits (p<0.05), except women’s occupation and religion (p>0.05). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to inform pregnant women and their families about the importance of ANC services to enhance effective utilization and improve the overall health status.

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A Study on the Variations in Menarcheal Age among the Meitei, Muslim and Kabui Populations of Manipur Valley


This paper attempts to analyse the variation of Menarcheal age among the Meitei, Muslim and Kabui populations of Manipur Valley. The sample of each population consists of 300 women. In women’s life, menarche marks the beginning of sexual maturation and is influenced by various factors like – biological and genetic factors, socio-economic, environmental, and nutritional factors. In general menarcheal age varies from one population to another. Thus, this paper also aims to compare the mean age of menarche available from different ethnic groups of Manipur. The present study reports that mean age at menarche among the Meitei women is 14.11 ± 0.10 years, 13.81 ± 0.09 years among the Muslim and 14.71 ± 0.09 among the Kabui women. The findings of the present study revealed that mean age at menarche occur earliest among the Muslims and latest among the Kabuis, while that of the Meitei, lies in the middle. As per ‘t’ tests, significant differences have been observed in all the three populations at 5% level. Significantly, it may be noted that a homogenous distribution of menarcheal age has been noted among the Meitei, the Aimol and the Kom tribes, whereas the Muslims show significant differences from all the three populations.

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Holistic Approach towards Understanding the Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: A Case of H1n1 Influenza (Swine Flu)


The World Health Organization estimates that approximately one billion people are infected and up to 500 000 people die from influenza each year. Providing an effective response to emerging infectious diseases remains a pressing global health challenge; the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic is a salient example. Also the data on risk perception and behavioral response to a novel virus is usually collected with a substantial delay or after an epidemic has run its course. This qualitative research was an attempt to explore the voices of patients, family and health professionals about their unheard experiences, perceptions and resort to treatment and cure. The results suggest there are varied factors (beliefs, environmental, cultural, media) that govern the health-seeking behavior of individuals. Of particular interest, we find that affective variables, such as self-reported anxiety over the epidemic, mediate the likelihood that respondents will engage in protective behavior that can go a long way in designing of epidemic control strategies.

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Relationship between Poverty and Child Abuse in the Slums of Charbagh Area, Lucknow- An Anthropological Perspective


This study is based on the data collected from 7 slum communities located in the Charbagh area of Lucknow city during the month of February 2018. A sample of 125 households which included a total of 300 children was selected via Random Sampling method. This study was conducted with following aims and objectives: to understand the multiple dimensions of the issue in discussion i.e. Child abuse through an anthropological perspective and suggesting possible solutions to curb the identifiable problem pertaining to the study area. All the respondents were interviewed intensively, along with it observation, case study and photography technology were used extensively. Internet records, NGO records, Newspaper, etc. Were the secondary source of data. The in-depth fieldwork was followed by scientific analysis and data representation using graph and charts and the following conclusions are made on that data alone. When we say “abuse” it does not mean only sexual but also physical, mental and cases of neglectance. After conducting our study we have identified poverty as the major cause along with its four direct consequence, they are: poor milieu, improper family planning poor socio-economic conditions, which resulted in physical neglectance, medical neglectance and educational neglectance, and illiteracy among parents.

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Education and Economic Profile of The Gunagi Community of Uttara Kannada, District, Karnataka, India


Historically when Karnataka was stretched towards the west, the Gunagi community migrated from Maharashtra (Ratnagiri) region towards the coastal line of Karnataka with “Habbu Brahmins.” Especially towards Karwar, Ankola, Yellapur, and Kumta taluks. Gunagi are priest, Farmers and farm labourers. Out of four taluks 140 households and 550 the cluster sampling technique followed by simple random sampling was chosen to select people from households from the talukas of Karwar, Kumta, Ankola and Yellapur. Out of 140 households 67.1% of people are earning 50000 rupees per year, remaining 33% annual income and expenditure is more than Rs. 50,000. The analysis of these conditions imply that there is a need of governmental and non-governmental organisation to increase the awareness of opportunities in education. Further through skill development, awareness of entrepreneurship and funding into the priority sectors of this community, the community can see the better economic parameters and youngsters can avail higher education.

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The Food Habits, Dietary Patterns, and Reproductive Health Status of The Agariya Women of Patrapali Panchayat of Korba District, Chhattisgarh


Women’s health is the foundation of society’s health. Preserving and improving women’s health is not only a basic human right, but it is also essential for the health of all nations. Reproductive health has become one of the major issues today because of the fact that population control policies are being enforced through women’s bodies as they are seen as the cause and solution for population growth and alarmingly increasingly the problem of HIV and AIDS in India. The main purpose of this study was to understand the nature of various sexual and reproductive health issues like knowledge and perception, and health services available to, and accessed by tribal women in Korba District of Chhattisgarh. It was clear from the study that most of the tribal women have poor knowledge about reproductive health as well as they were unaware of its importance. Education on human sexuality with all the aspects, prevention, and treatment of STDs and AIDS is a direct necessity among tribal women to help them reduce high-risk behavior to seek proper treatment for treatable ailments.

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Kudumbashree: A Story Of Economic Empowerment Of Women In Kerala


Kudumbashree is basically a women’s organization. It was born in the special developmental and political context of the state of Kerala. The mission aims to eradicate extreme poverty within 10 years under the leadership of the local self-government bodies established under the 73rd and 74th Amendments of the Constitution of India. The paper discuss the role of Kudumbashree in empowering women through various programmes initiated through them. It illustrates the programs undertaken by Kudumbashree.

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Beliefs and Perceptions of Teachers about the Local Knowledge of Students: A Case Study of the Birhor Tribe of Jharkhand


The environment in which tribal children live is usually very different from what is represented in their school curriculum. The responsibility of localizing the curriculum in accordance with children’s knowledge and bridging the gap between their indigenous knowledge and school content knowledge lies upon the teacher. The perception a teacher holds about the nature of the subject, the pedagogical aspect of the subject, the nature of knowledge and the learner, and her role in the classroom—every aspect together shapes the classroom practices of the teacher in which she tries to localize the curriculum for children and make them understand the topic. Therefore, the present study focuses on understanding the beliefs and perceptions teachers hold about the social context of children, the local knowledge of children, and the scope and significance of their knowledge in classroom transactions. For the study, five teachers who teach the children of the “Birhor Tribe” living in Koderma, Jharkhand, were interviewed. The classroom teachings of the interviewed teachers were observed to validate the impact of their beliefs on their pedagogy. Major findings indicated that the indigenous knowledge of children is not valued in the classroom, and there is no such effort on the part of teachers to localize the curriculum in the context of children’s conception. The study also has the scope for suggesting some modifications that are needed to be included in the administration.

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Silence and Marginalisation: Exploring Identity and Ecology in Girish Karnad’s ‘Cheluvi’


This article critically examines the complex negotiations of gender, class and caste identity in the Kannada film Cheluvi [Beautiful Girl] (1992), a film about a young woman’s ability to transform herself into an exotic fragrant flowering tree. It was the recipient of the ‘National Film Award for Best Film on Environment Conservation/Preservation’ by the Government of India in the year 1992. The film written and directed by the acclaimed veteran Indian playwright/director and actor, Girish Karnad, forms a part of his larger body of work exploring themes around gender and environment. By deconstructing the narrative, this film provides an insight into how the experience of embodied gendered identities are constitutive of unique subject positions constructed through the layerings of both immediate and overarching social markers. In the context of this film, it is this mélange of seemingly incongruent identities that defines the thematic spine of the cinematic narrative of Cheluvi as a visual text. Using the analytical lens of the ‘silence versus speech’, this article demonstrates the intersectional dynamics of identity in relation to caste, gender and class and its significance in shaping the lived experience of marginalization of people and ecology.

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Overall Prevalence of Undernutrition Measured by Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (Ciaf): A Study among the Rural and Urban Preschool Children of West Bengal, India


Child under-nutrition is the major public health concern in many developing countries as well as India. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the overall prevalence of undernutrition using CIAF among the rural and urban pre-school children of West Bengal. A total of 240 children aged 3-5 years were included in the present study. The anthropometric measurements like height and weight and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) were recorded using standard procedures. Children were considered as underweight, stunting and wasting if their weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z-scores were below -2.0 SD. The overall age and sex combined prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight were found to be 13.33%, 6.66% and 18.33% among the rural preschool children, and 18.33%, 5.83% and 16.66% among the urban preschool children. CIAF showed a higher prevalence of undernutrition (22.5% in the rural and 24.16% in the urban) among the preschool children than the other three conventional indicators (stunting, underweight and wasting). No significant difference in the overall prevalence of undernutrition was found between the rural and the urban slum preschool children. However, 14.17% of the rural preschool children and 12.5% the urban slum preschool children were found to have multiple anthropometric failure. The present study established that CIAF is a better indicator of nutritional status than the traditional measures of stunting, underweight and wasting. The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure measure will bring more precision in the identification of the nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population and enhance the efficacy of nutritional intervention programs by identifying single or multiple failure groups.

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Education in Covid-19 - Understanding Neo-Perspectives of E-Learning


E-learning played a significant role during COVID-19 in the education sector in every corner of the world. However, the malicious aspect was also apparent as people found it problematic to harmonize with things abruptly. In addition, there was a farrago of quandaries because, during the closure of schools, children found it easy to learn in the comfort of their homes. The study aims to evaluate the impact of E-learning on students and how they veered around from traditional to technological facets of learning.

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The Kobai System among the Tiwa of North East India: A Study on their Matrilineal System


When we speak about the matrilineal descent system in India, we generally consider the Khasi-Jaintia and Garo of Meghalaya and Nayars of central Kerala as a matrilineal group. However, the Tiwa tribe inhabiting between the borders of Assam and Meghalaya also practices matrilineage and matrilocal residence which have not been studied by ethnographers in detail. Since the 1980s there has been a gradual transformation of the lineage system of this tribe, with the increase of patrilocal residence and patrilineage. Interestingly, no proper study has taken place on the Tiwa matrilineal descent system and its continuity and change. In the light of the above statement, this paper studies the kobai system and explores the general features of the Tiwa descent system and to understand the trajectory of change from matrilineal to patrilineal descent.

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A Systematic Review Of Theory And Process Of Migration Studies


Migration studies have been occupying an important space among academia and policymakers. There have been dialogues and discourses on various dimensions of migration through historical and empirical studies. Many studies have compartmentalized the phenomenon of migration into two types: internal and international migration. More emphasis has been given to international migration while internal migration issues have been deprived of serious academic attention. Migration, in fact, is meant to look through the different events of societies and their changing nature. This paper will attempt at putting a schematic model that sets out-migration studies which bring together aspects of in and out-migration and their relationship. This paper attempts to provide panoramic views on different facets of migration from different perspectives and show how migration plays an important role in the adaptation/integration of the national imaginary. This paper also highlights the basic concepts of migration and their relationship with theories adapted to the migration processes.

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Health After Menopause: A Study On Anthropometric Measurements And Their Relationship To Postmenopausal Health Among The Tribal Mishing Women Of Guwahati City, Assam


Menopause just like birth and death is an inevitable part of a woman’s life. This event is significant as it is believed to have a substantial impact on a woman’s life. The objective of this paper is to assess the age-specific variance in anthropometric measurements and adiposity levels among tribal post-menopausal women. The study was conducted in the Guwahati City of Assam. Observation and interview with pre-tested schedule and anthropometric measurements with the standard technique and spss were used for collecting and analyzing the data. The findings show that, 64.4% of the post-menopausal women were found to be normal (BMI: 18.5-22.9 kg/m2), 27.7% of the respondents were at the increased risk of adiposity (BMI:23.0-27.5 kg/m2) and 4.0% belonged to category grade I obesity or higher risk of adiposity (BMI:>27.5 kg/m2), whereas another 4% were underweight (BMI:<18.5 kg/m2). Regarding WHR, 39.0% of the post-menopausal women were at high risk, 36.4% belonged to moderate risk and 24.6% at low risk. The relative risks of co-morbidity related to excess adiposity were also quite high among the Mishing post-menopausal women.

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Naga Traditional Village Polity: A Reading from J.P. Mills’ ‘The Lhota Naga’


This paper discussed the nature of the Naga traditional village during the pre-colonial period with special reference to J.P. Mills’ ‘The Lhota Naga’ (1922). The distinctive independent nature of every Naga village, with its own polity and administrative setups and different institutions within each village, like the Morung, Peer Groups, and Village Chieftainship, marked the Naga society during the pre-colonial times. The paper deals with the distinctive nature and polity of Naga villages and the relationship between different Naga villages, and how they acquired legal sanction and recognition from the government during the post-colonial period.

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Association Of Hysterectomy With Coronary Risk Factors


There is no unanimity on the association of hysterectomy with coronary risk factors. There is also no evidence on the association of hysterectomy with coronary risk factors in the Indian populations. We attempted here to investigate the association of hysterectomy with coronary risk factors involving 43 hysterectomized and 43 non-hysterectomized women. Significantly higher mean lean body mass (LBM) was observed in the hysterectomized women when compared to non-hysterectomized women (p<0.05). LBM was significantly associated with (standardized β=0.219, 95% CI 0.066-3.768,p=0.043)hysterectomy. Cut-off value of LBM was determined using receiver operator characteristic curve and found to be >38.95 kg. Univariate analysis using LBM as independent variable and coronary risk factors as dependent variables was performed. LBM cut-off value was found to be significantly associated with hypertension(p<0.05), general obesity, high waist circumference and type 2 diabetes(p<0.01). The results of the present study suggest that hysterctomized women with LBM cut-off value of >38.95kg showed association with coronary risk factors These findings need to be, however, replicated through large scale studies and/or preferably in a longitudinal study.

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Socio-Economic Dimensions Of Education Among The Betta Kuruba: Anthropological Insights From Mysuru District, Karnataka


This research attempts to explore the socio-economic dimensions of formal education among the Betta Kuruba, a forest-dwelling tribal community living in the fringe areas of Rajiv Gandhi National Park in Karnataka. The study was conducted across 3 Betta Kuruba haadis (settlements) in Mysuru district of Karnataka. A mixed methods research approach was adopted to gather quantitative and qualitative data from the study site. Primary data were gathered using standard techniques, namely observation, household survey schedule, and extensive semi-structured and open-ended interviews with key informants. The study found that the current top-down approach of the government is not bearing any fruit which is evident by the poor enrolment rates of tribal children in schools. The study suggests a region-based, grassroots approach to overcome the bottlenecks in the current education system in order to enable the Betta Kurubas to improve their socio-economic status and find better opportunities in the future.

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Exploring the Cultural Traditions and Beliefs Surrounding Ante-Natal, Post-Natal, And Postpartum Periods


This study had focused on exploring the cultural traditions and beliefs surrounding the ante-natal, post-natal, and postpartum periods. Pregnancy and childbirth are significant life events that are associated with different cultural beliefs and practices, which can vary across regions, ethnicities, and religions. Understanding these cultural traditions and beliefs, is important for healthcare providers to provide culturally sensitive care to pregnant and postpartum women. This study had used mixed method research design to explore the cultural traditions and beliefs surrounding the ante-natal, post-natal, and postpartum periods. The study was conducted on 110 subjects in the Nauni and its adjacent environs in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. It involved in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with pregnant women and with the women who have at least one child and their families. The data collected was analyzed using thematic analysis to identify common cultural traditions and beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth. The study aimed to provide insight into how cultural beliefs and practices influence healthcare-seeking behaviors, decision-making, and perceptions of care during the ante-natal, post-natal, and postpartum periods. The findings of this study can inform the development of culturally appropriate healthcare interventions and policies to improve maternal and child health outcomes.

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Symbolic Inequalities In Marriage Ceremonies Among The Muslims Of Kashmir: Situating Social Class


Marriage is a universal social institution and is embedded in our social fabric in such a way that we don’t have a second thought about not marrying, especially among the social actors of a religious family. Researchers, here in the field of marriage only focused on the rituals, caste, race, and practices of marriage; however, the class dimension of marriage is absent, especially among the Muslims which is very apparent in Kashmir (a Muslim-dominated society). The present study aimed to unmask the domination and make public the hidden inequalities of celebrating marriages, which contradict the grand narrative of the Muslim Marriage. Employing an in-depth interview on sixteen participants of whom nine participants were from lower-middle-class and seven were from upper-class families of urban Srinagar (Kashmir), based on the purposive sampling procedure. The data of the study revealed that in the celebration of marriage from age at marriage, dresses, crockery, and utensils to feast, inequalities are very apparent. Social class plays its role in deciding whom to marry and whom not. Marriage among the Muslims of Kashmir is claimed to be done according to Islamic guidelines and traditions, however, results revealed that the marriage of the Muslims in Kashmir varies according to their social class background. Every social class has its way of celebrating its family member’s marriage from age at marriage, the status of the family, hiring a matchmaker, and a place of celebration to feast.

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Rethinking Tourism in Jagannatha Puri: An Anthropological Study of Domestic Tourists


The previous years of total lockdown because of the Covid-19 pandemic brought the global touristic movements to a pause, and also led to a changed outlook towards life and human activities. Out of this renewed outlook emerged the theme for the 2022 World Tourism Day- ‘Rethinking Tourism’, which emphasizes the need to seize this opportunity to rethink how we do tourism to attain the ultimate goal of sustainability. Rethinking and reorganizing the tourism industry poses a challenge for us, but it is also a promising opportunity for rebuilding a sustainable tourism industry through multi-disciplinary insights. In this context, anthropologists have a crucial role to play in studying the host societies, the tourists and the sociocultural impacts of host-guest interactions, as well as the impact of tourism development in a destination. The present study provides an anthropological insight into the motivations and behavior of domestic tourists visiting the famous Hindu pilgrimage destination and the coastal city Puri, Odisha. The findings of this research reflect leisure and a compelling urge to escape the routinized life as the major motivations behind visiting Puri, besides another major motive of pilgrimage. On the other hand, the touristic behavior towards the heritage assets reflects less responsible practices which may prove unsustainable in the long run.

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Change And Continuity: An Ethnographic Perspective of the Sagra Misawa Festival of the Tiwas In Assam


A festival is the culmination of an ethnic group’s collective way of expressing its beliefs, values, and emotions via ritual and performance. The Tiwa’s, like other ethnic groups in Assam, have made important contributions to the state’s social and cultural fabric, and they, too, observe a number of festivals and observances throughout the year to mark these occasions. The Sagra Misawa is one of the major festivals celebrated by the Tiwa’s in Assam. This research looks at how the celebration has changed over the years and how many cultural aspects of this significant celebration have evolved. It places a premium on researching the connection between the festival’s significance as a public event and the effect it has on people’s lives today. From a gendered perspective, this study also examines the various contributions made by men and women to the festival. Despite the changes brought about by modernity, the research shows that fostering a strong sense of ethnic identity among the Tiwa is still of paramount importance.

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Traditional Rice Beer Fermentation Technology of the Sonowal Kachari Tribe of Assam, India


Rohi is the popular traditional rice beer of the Sonowal Kacharis, which is typically obtained by natural fermentation. The present study aims to identify the key ingredients used in the preparation of Mod pitha (starter culture cake), detail documentation of the fermentation technology and the socio-cultural and religious significance of Rohi. Participatory approach method was adopted for data collection that included in-depth interviews and discussions with key informants and personal observations. Glutinous rice (Oryza glutinosa Lour.) Is the principal substrate for the beer preparation, which is mixed with starter cakes and fermented within a heat-sterilized earthen pot for 4-5 days. Rohi is indispensable during festivals and traditional sacrificial rituals and ceremonies. The entire fermentation technology is the exclusive domain of women. It is hoped that this paper will be useful for further scientific study of Rohi in order to examine the bio-chemical and phyto-chemical composition of the different plant species used in the preparation of starter culture and the final pure product that may reveal some important nutritional properties, therapeutic pro-biotics, healthy metabolites, etc. And contribute towards development of the product as a value-added drink.

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Forests And Faith: Exploring the Sacred Significance of the Forest in the Religious Traditions of the Ho Tribe in West Singhbhum, India


The indigenous people’s religion is inextricably linked to the forest environment. In their eyes, the forest is deified, and revered as a sacred entity. Their unwavering devotion lies to the natural world, which they hold in the highest esteem. Their religious rituals and activities helped to conserve natural resources. For their survival, the bulk of tribal people in India lives in close proximity to forests. The forests are not just a physical landscape for them, but an omnipresent force that shapes their very existence. From their livelihoods to their spiritual beliefs, the forests influence every facet of their lives, like a vital heartbeat that pulsates throughout their culture. They rely on the forest for their survival, gathering food, timber, implements, and other resources that serve a variety of purposes. The forest provides them with a wealth of natural wealth, which they use skillfully to meet their daily needs. They think that their forebears’ souls can be found in many locations across the forest and other aspects of nature. Bushes, hillocks, trees, animals, birds, sacred groves, and other natural objects are all revered. The current research examines the importance of forests in religious activities and festivals among the Ho people in the West Singhbhum region of Jharkhand State in India.

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Lived Experiences of Homelessness In Kolkata: A Phenomenological Analysis


Previous research into homelessness has tended to focus on the demography, survival needs and socio-economic profile of the homeless, almost exclusively adopting the quantitative method. This qualitative study aimed to explore the subjective experience of homelessness from the perspective of one hundred four participants in Kolkata, who had been homeless for several years. Participants were asked to give their accounts during in-depth interviews. The subsequent transcripts were analysed using phenomenological analysis, where superordinate themes were identified: the impact of homelessness and surviving homelessness. Results illustrated that homelessness is impacting self-esteem and feelings of helplessness, insecurity, despair, pain and loss of willingness to work are represented through the narratives of their everyday lives. Participants also revealed their enduring hardships and overcoming adversity.

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A Study On The Waterborne Morbidities Of Karang Islet, Manipur


Objectives: The paper try to identify the main factors that are contributing to the high prevalence of water-borne diseases among the inhabitants of Karang Islet? As it is surrounded by a lake. Conclusion: After analysis of the causal factors, it was observed that unavailability of potable water, poor sanitation and lack of proper health hygiene, stagnant educational qualification, low socio-economic conditions, cultural practices associated with consumption of drinking water etc., were the main determinants. Therefore, it is need of the hour that some intervention from the government or NGO’s are being required to control the morbidity among this particular people of island dwellers.

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Sexual Behaviour Among The Injecting Drug Users Of Arunachal Pradesh


Arunachal Pradesh has been placed amongst the highest ranking states in terms of drug and substance use in the National Survey of 2019. Risky sexual behaviours are considered to be associated with an increasing use of drugs. The main objective of the study is to examine the intersection between injecting drug use and sexual behaviour and to assess the level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS among the injecting drug-using youths of Arunachal Pradesh. The data for the present study was collected on a structured questionnaire from a sample of 1000 youth from four study areas purposively selected. A significant number of them (14%) have reported or perceived to be injecting drug users. The cross-tabulation and Pearson Chi-square test is performed to test significant association between the variables. The results show that there is a high prevalence of risky sexual and injecting behaviours and poor level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS. A statistically significant association is established between the variables of drug use and risky sexual behaviours. However, delineating the direct causal relationship between drug use and sexual behaviour is considered to be a complex one, because a wide variety of socio-cultural and psychological factors influenced it. The paper concludes with the suggestion that future social research needs to focus on examining the social interaction and social relations of drug use and sexual activity.

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Issues of Tribal Development in Arunachal Pradesh: The Case of the Nyishi Tribe


The paper focuses on the perspectives of sustainable development among the Nyishis of Kurung Kumey district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh who have the status of a Scheduled Tribe but are somewhat deprived of the benefits of development even after India’s economic reforms. The study reveals that Nyishis living in remote and inaccessible villages have remained neglected over the years due to the following three main reasons: firstly, the benefits of development do not reach these remote villages due to their distant and isolated location; secondly, the administration of these villages is in the hands of political/panchayat leaders which is more concerned with the collection of petty amount without doing anything good for the people, and in the process, the needs and concerns of the people often get neglected. Thirdly, there is a lack of proper execution of the developmental works by the government agencies/officials, due to which initiated work is stuck on the way. The paper attempts to raise the conceptual issues and constraints of post-reformation development programmes resulting in the obscured and neglect of the people in the process of development.

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Dietary Patterns of Kashmiri Muslim Women during Pregnancy: An Exploratory Study


This study explores the dietary patterns of Kashmiri Muslim women during pregnancy. In Kashmir, food culture is deeply rooted in tradition, and food choices are governed by religious and cultural beliefs. A balanced and nutrient-rich diet is essential for a healthy pregnancy, and inadequate nutrition can affect foetal development and postpartum health. Therefore, it is important to understand the dietary habits of pregnant women in Kashmir to improve maternal and child health outcomes. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that the dietary patterns of Kashmiri Muslim women during pregnancy are influenced by cultural and religious beliefs. Despite some nutrient deficiencies, the overall dietary quality is good, and the consumption of nutrient-rich foods such as fruits and dairy products is high. These results can inform the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions to improve maternal and child health outcomes in Kashmir.

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Diabetes Mellitus and Its Association with Obesity and Lifestyle Indicators among the Rural Tangkhul of Manipur


The burden of diabetes is high and increasing globally and in developing economies like India, mainly fueled by the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and unhealthy lifestyles. Diabetes has become one of the largest global health emergencies of this century, ranking among the ten leading causes of mortality, together with cardiovascular disease (CVD), reducing the overall quality of life. This study examines the obesity level and lifestyle indicators as the main risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus among Tangkhul males of Manipur. A total of 350 Tangkhul males of the Ukhrul district, aged 20-80 years, were randomly sampled. A pre-designed and pre-tested schedule was used, including anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and lifestyle parameters. Anthropometric and blood sugar were measured following standardized procedures. Statistical methods viz., descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied. The result shows that diabetic individuals have a higher mean BMI and fat mass compared to the non-diabetic counterpart. Logistic regression shows that overweight and obese are at higher risk of developing diabetes (OR = 13.6) as compared to the other weight categories. Lifestyle indicators such as physical activity, alcohol consumption, anxiety disorder, and meat consumption also influence diabetes differently depending on the body’s functionality and susceptibility to diseases. Therefore, there is an urgent need to educate the masses on the impact of a healthy lifestyle, as mindfulness alone can assist with these issues.

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Methodological Issues in Assessment of Mental Health in a Conflict Zone: A Case Study of Jammu and Kashmir


Based on the review of studies conducted so far, this paper attempts to critically analyze the studies conducted on people’s mental health in Jammu and Kashmir. The objective was to map the methodological issues and challenges of assessing mental health in a conflict zone to understand better the impact of violence on mental health in a protracted conflict region. It was found that standardized quantitative tools were mainly used to measure the mental health impacts and the aspect of understanding the local subjective meanings finds little mention. It has been inferred that the dominant approach to understanding trauma has been of seeing trauma as an individualized experience in isolation from the collective and shared community experience and not much focus on the background of social and historical meanings associated with such traumatic events.

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Development and Circulation of Indigenous Medical Knowledge: A Study of Medieval Kerala


Spices have been an integral part of the trade of medieval Kerala since the ancient times. Greeks, Romans, Chinese, Jews, Arabs and Europeans were part of the spice trade in the region. Having been recognised for their healing properties, spices have been used widely as medicines in the regions that they were traded in. This paper is an attempt at understanding the circulation and incorporation of indigenous knowledge regarding spices as medicine and its subsequent usage in the medical realm of western pharmacopoeia. Medieval Kerala has had an active tradition of plant-based medicine with the focus mainly on spices. The works of van Rheede and da Orta attest to the local knowledge on botany and its application in medicine. The article focuses on bringing out the influence that the local medical traditions and knowledge have had on western medical corpus and to understand the acceptance and acknowledgement they received for the same.

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Livelihood Strategies And Covid-19: A Study Of The Chenchus Of Nallamala Forest, Andhra Pradesh


The Chenchus are a hunting and gathering society in the Nallamala forest of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, India. However, due to the setting up of the Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve in the Nallamala Forest, the Chenchus have had limited access to the entry and the use of the forest resources, which they have relied upon for sustenance. The forest was declared protected, and entry was strictly prohibited, especially in the core areas, while forest fringes were partially allowed for resource extraction. Due to this, there was a decreased dependency on the forest and its resources and the practice of their traditional livelihood was hampered. As a result, they looked for alternative economic opportunities for sustenance, viz., daily and agricultural wage labour, selling of Minor Forest Products and engaging in the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 or MGNREGA launched by the Government of India in 2006. During the height of the pandemic, the government announced a national lockdown to stop the spread of the virus among people. As a result, the alternate economic opportunities dwindled, and the Chenchus lost their source of income, faced untold difficulties and struggled to survive. They then returned to their traditional livelihood activities, hunted small game in the forest fringes, and gathered plant-based material. This and help rendered by various agencies enabled the Chenchus to survive the lockdown period.

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Zootherapy: Traditional Knowledge Of Animal-Based Remedies Among The Tangsa Tribe Of Arunachal Pradesh, India


The Tangsas are rich in their traditional knowledge-based medicinal practices. They employ various traditional healing mechanisms like spiritual healing, herbal healing and zootherapeutic healing to deal with numerous health-related problems. This paper investigates the traditional knowledge of animal-based remedies among the Tangsa community of Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The paper deals with three important areas; first, it attempts to identify some of the animal species which are useful for medicinal purposes, secondly to understand how animal-based medicines are prepared and applied, and lastly to know about different diseases that can be treated traditionally with animal-based products. The present study is based on the empirical data collected during fieldwork conducted in seven villages located in different parts of Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh. It has been observed that use of animal-based remedies among the Tangsa community is gradually declining due to varied reasons like modern medical facilities, education, intervention of the govt., lack of resources and products, shortage of medicine experts, and so on. Thus, this study is important to document the use of animal-based remedies as part of a traditional knowledge system.

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Socio-Economic Challenges of Persons with Disabilities: A Study of District Bandipora


Disability is a state of impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Down the ages, we see disability is as curse or punishment. The first ever World report on disability, produced jointly by the World Health Organization and the the World Bank, suggests that more than a billion people in the world today experience disability. Therefore, about 10 per cent of the world’s populations are Person with Disabilities. With the advancement of science and social change, disability is viewed as a societal problem rather than individual problem and solution become focused on removing the barriers to social change, not just medical care. People with disabilities often experience discrimination; they tend to alienate themselves from society as they feel unwanted and rejected. The present study aimed to understand the socio-economic challenges of persons with disabilities in Bandipora district. The study was conducted on 100 disabled persons in Bandipora district by using sample random sampling technique in the age group of 10-50 years for the study. Semi-structured interview schedule was employed to assess the socio-demographic information. The results of the study revealed that persons with disabilities have poorer health accesses, lower education achievements, less social and economic participation.

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Exploring Claims of Indigenous Rights and Ethnic Minority Rights in Northeast India


The term ‘indigeneity’ and ‘ethnicity’ are often used interchangeably. Both tend to represent a group of people, who claim common identity based on the basis of shared experiences of marginalization, oppression and exclusion. They also tend to represent people or communities engaged in varying degrees of self-assertion, power struggle and demand for autonomy or independence. However, some ethnic minority communities in India who already enjoy a distinct ethnic identity, autonomy and rights over resources go on to claim indigeneity. Why would recognized ethnic minorities feel the need to be identified as indigenous people? What is the difference in their claim as ethnic minorities and indigenous communities? This paper closely examines the categories ‘indigenous people’ and ‘ethnic minority’. Using case studies from South Asia, in particular Northeast India, it explores the context in which such claims are made. Finally, it argues that although these terms share conceptual similarities their usage in practice makes them distinct entities for community and individual agency.

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Trends and Patterns of Temporal Tourism Growth in Ladakh Region, India


The Ladakh region is known worldwide for tourism activities due to its special mountainous landscape. Summer is the peak season for tourism, while winter is the lowest season in terms of tourist arrivals in the region. This research based study deals with the growth trends of tourism in Ladakh in the first two decades of the current century. The number of domestic tourists, usually lower than that of international tourists, increased from thousands to millions in the study area between 2001 and 2020 and recorded the highest inflow in 2018 and 2019. The trend of domestic tourist inflow remained increasing and upward, while the inflow of international tourists was decreasing and downward during the study period. There was an overall growth in tourism during the study period in terms of the influx of tourists to the region.

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Antrocom, Volume 20, Number 1, 2024

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