Epidemiological Study of Type 2 Diabetes and its Co-morbidities in the Urban Population of Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

We screened 1,519 adults over 20 years old from Tirupati, including 539 males and 980 females, collecting data on age, sex, family history of T2DM, hypertension, CAD, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol were measured. We observed a crude prevalence of T2DM at 17% (males 19.66%, females 15.61%) and pre-diabetes at 8.68% (males 10%, females 7.95%), increasing with age in both genders. The age and gender-adjusted prevalence of T2DM was 14.47% (males 14.43%, females 14.39%). T2DM subjects had significantly higher average anthropometric measurements/indices, blood pressure, glucose, and lipid profiles compared to non-diabetics (P<0.01). There was also a higher prevalence of general and central obesity, hypertension, and a positive family history of T2DM, along with higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, waist circumference, metabolic syndrome, and lower HDL-C in type 2 diabetics than in non-diabetics. Logistic regression analysis indicated a significant association of T2DM with a positive family history of T2DM, systolic blood pressure, high triglycerides, central obesity (p<0.01), high total cholesterol (p<0.05), abdominal circumference, and age (p<0.01).