Haemoglobinopathies in North-East India: A review on the models associated with its prevalence

Various abnormal hemoglobin structures of human blood are widely prevalent among some populations of Upper Assam. Over the years, various researches have been conducted by different researchers from varied perspectives. Many theories have been put forward as to the origin and spread of the mutation which led to the occurrence of abnormal hemoglobin in the Austro-Asiatic population of South East Asia and the Tibeto-Burman population of North-East India. Hypotheses stating its relation to malarial selection, inbreeding and fertility have also been ascertained. However, these studies have, time and again, reflected mixed results, as a holistic study on this topic is required. A systematic review of literature on platforms such as NCBI-MeSH, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scirus, etc., was done for the time period between 1950 to2022. This study attempts to review all the researches done so far in North-East India vis-à-vis abnormal haemoglobin structure to trace the origin and prevalence of these hemoglobin types and unearth the gaps in the existing literature.